Oversleeping: Causes, Side Effects & Tips

Oversleeping: Causes, Side Effects & Tips

Sleep is an essential factor for overall health and well-being feelings. How much is actually oversleeping, what does the science say about it, and what are the ways of returning to normal life? The article includes the complete review of the most compelling issues of the day.

Who does not like sleeping? We all do. But what if oversleeping becomes a regular tendency, and getting out of bed and going about your day appear to be a massive problem?

Long sleepers have first-hand knowledge of complete exhaustion, absence of attention, low energy, and memory disorders. These symptoms start to have a quite negative effect on their lives over time.

In order to feel well, a person needs 8 hours of night rest, which is one third of a day and, speaking generally, one third of a life. Today we will speak about the effects which occur when this period is exceeded and the ways of overcoming this problem.

How Much Sleep Is Oversleeping?

The amount of sleep is a generic term which is quite individual and highly depends on age, health, environmental conditions, and other factors. But the average norms still exist. A sleep deficit leads to mental and physical fatigue and is as harmful as excessive sleepiness. Oversleeping is often a signal of various medical issues and health risks.

How much sleep is oversleeping? The table below represents the recommended sleep duration according to the data of National Sleep Foundation.


Recommended, hoursAppropriate, hours

Not recommended, hours

Newborns (0-3 months)14-1711-19< 11


Infants (4-11 months)12-1510-18


> 18

Toddlers (1-2 y.o.)11-149-16< 9

> 16

Preschoolers (3-5 y.o.)10-138-14

< 8

> 14

School-aged children (6-13 y.o.)9-117-12< 7

> 12

Teenagers (14-17 y.o.)8-107-11



Young adults (18-25 y.o.)7-96-11<6


Adults (26-64 y.o.)7-96-10



Seniors (≥65 y.o.)7-85-9



‘Recommended hours’ is the time which is associated with well-being and good health for people of the particular age group. Minor deviations may be appropriate for some individuals. Not recommended hours are not likely conductive for proper rest.

The ideal amount of sleep can be determined individually. Try to experiment on the weekend: go to bed earlier than usual and wake up without an alarm clock. This simple test will help to figure out how many hours your organism needs for rest. Try to keep a sleep diary, recording all sleep-related events and the period of sleep. Resting the same amount every night (in the range of recommended hours) will help you to keep fit, wake up relaxed, and be balanced and fulfilled with energy.

Regular oversleeping is a symptom of medical issues that has serious and negative effects for health. Try to figure out the reasons for the change in ordinary sleep habits and visit a somnologist.
Oversleeping: Causes, Side Effects & Tips

How Is Oversleeping Diagnosed?

Those who constantly feel drowsy during the day should visit a doctor and be checked for hypersomnia or hypersomnolence, the medical definition for oversleeping. It can result from a range of factors: central nervous system injuries, simple over-the-counter remedies, alcohol abuse, depression, and many more.

According to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, hypersomnolence includes narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, insufficient sleep syndrome, and hypersomnia due to medical condition, substance, or associated with a psychiatric state.

AnxietyThe first signs of oversleeping are:

  • apathy;
  • irritancy;
  • anxiety;
  • bad appetite;
  • slow thinking;
  • slurred speech;
  • forgetfulness;
  • restlessness.

To diagnose this disorder a clinician should review the symptoms and the person’s records of medical history. Additional tests can significantly help to clarify the diagnosis. These are:

  1. Sleep diary (mentioned above).
  2. Epworth Sleepiness Scale. A very short questionnaire that measures daytime sleepiness and helps to determine the severity of the condition.
  3. Multiple sleep latency test. This method implies monitored naps or night rest in a sleep laboratory. It checks how quickly a patient falls asleep and the progress of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
  4. Wakefulness test. This method helps to determine a patient’s concentration, ability to operate heavy equipment, or the efficacy of certain medical preparations.
  5. Polysomnogram. Night sleep control that examines brain waves, the oxygen level in blood, heartbeat, breathing, and eye and leg movements.

Oversleeping can be a result of physical health disorders. More tests will help to find the root cause:

  • blood tests;
  • computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging;
  • electroencephalogram.

Excessive daytime sleepiness is a widespread disorder nowadays that has numerous reasons and many therapy options. Timely detection of hypersomnia will help to overcome this disorder successfully and exclude the further development of various physical and mental ailments.

Causes of Oversleeping

OversleepingScientists say that long sleeping is not harmful itself, but it is a signal that a person may be sleeping ineffectively or that another problem exists that steals the person’s energy.

Feeling tired for a prolonged period after an adequate night rest’s is weird. There are numerous causes that lead to excessive sleepiness. Among them are:

  1. Environmental conditions. Sleeping in a room with a temperature too hot or too cold is uncomfortable. Oversleeping or waking up periodically is the natural response of an organism. An inconvenient bed brings more discomfort and decreases the quality of rest.
  2. Habits. Caffeinated drinks in big amounts affect regular regime and inhibit the production of adenosine (a chemical that works to create sleepiness) in the organism. An exhausted body with a sleep debt responds by oversleeping subsequently.
  3. Medical reasons. Long sleeping may be a symptom of numerous ailments, such as diabetes, heart problems, thyroid issues, depression, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  4. Stress. When a person lives under constant stress, the levels of adrenaline rise up, increasing heart rate, restlessness, and inability to achieve a normal resting state that is required for deep sleep and restoring the energy level.
  5. Alcohol. Those who drink a few alcoholic beverages before sleeping tend to sleep longer. Alcohol impacts the sleep cycles and prevents renewal of the organism for the next day.
  6. Medications’ side effects. Certain prescription or over-the-counter drugs used to treat another disorder may make a person feel dizzy and sleepy all the time.
  7. Recreational drugs. The pleasurable effects are short-lived, but the devastating consequences are not. For instance, cocaine can have a long-term impact on sleep, disrupting circadian rhythms and suppressing crucial REM-sleep in the long term. Cocaine withdrawal may cause oversleeping, too.
  8. Hard workout. Heavy training makes a person exhausted. A physically or mentally active organism creates more adenosine. Post-workout sleep and food is highly suggested.

Thus, the factors which affect sleep cycles are numerous. Analyzing the living style will certainly help in detecting the underlying reason for hypersomnia.

Poor Sleep Schedule

Products containing caffeineA poor sleep schedule is usually created by a number of wrong sleeping habits. If unchanged, inadequate sleep hygiene will degenerate into physical side effects and multiple sleep problems which significantly alter general well-being.

Here is the list of unhealthy sleep habits:

  1. Eating right before bed. Night meals get the stomach acids going, and lying down causes those acids to creep up to the throat. Those who really crave for a late night snack should eat foods rich in minerals, as they promote sleep.
  2. Drinking coffee and smoking. Taken within 3 hours of bedtime, caffeine and nicotine prevent falling asleep. Remember that many other products contain caffeine, too (cola, soda, chocolate, etc.).
  3. Alcohol before bedtime. Some people mistakenly believe that the drowsy effect of alcohol helps a person to fall asleep quicker. Metabolized alcohol affects the sleep cycle and causes nausea.
  4. Using high tech gadgets in bed. TVs, computers, laptops, cell phones, tablets, portable game consoles, and e-readers emit the blue light that steals sleep.
  5. Hitting the snooze button. Keeping communication devices next to yourself and using them as alarm clocks creates a disturbing feeling at night and allows you to hit the snooze button over and over in the morning.
  6. Wrong room temperature. Air that is too hot or too cold prevents you from having a good rest.
  7. Sleep schedule violation. Staying up late and taking naps harm the sleep cycles.

The effects of poor sleep hygiene become visible in many ways during daily life and result in fatigue, overall weakness, depleted motivation, lack of strategy, mood swings, poor decisions, forgetfulness, concentration difficulties, and headache.

Sleep Habits

Daily and evening activities have a major impact on the night’s rest, promoting or reducing sleepiness. Food and drinks, medical preparations, and the daily routine are directly related to the quality of sleep. Healthy sleep habits can help to solve difficultly sleeping, reduce oversleeping, and normalize general well-being. Try to follow these simple steps:

  1. Avoid the wrong sleep habits described above.
  2. Do sports and eat healthy food without alcohol.
  3. Start keeping a sleep journal. Discover a personally ideal sleep time, update the journal with notes on the total period of sleep and its quality, amount of active time, taken meals, used drugs, and other important issues.
  4. Make a schedule: always wake up and go to bed at the same time, including on weekends and vacations. The night rest must contain the number of hours which are necessary for your rest.
  5. Avoid naps after 3 p.m. Naps in the mid-afternoon should not last longer than half an hour.
  6. Go to bed when you are truly tired. If your attempt to fall asleep failed after 15-20 minutes, get out of bed and do relaxing activities (reading, listening to music) until you feel drowsy.
  7. Turn off all electronic devices for at least half an hour before sleep.
  8. Put your alarm clock far away, and that will prevent you from hitting the snooze button. Use a light alarm clock («sunrise clocks»).
  9. Make your morning positive, and manage your day according to the schedule.
  10. Do relaxing and interesting activities in the evening: quiet conversation with a partner, warm bath, reading a book, etc. Avoid computer games and news, as due to their effects brain remains active.
  11. Keep your bedroom dark, cool, and quiet, and use it for rest only. Using a sleep mask to cover the eyes will help you to fall asleep in time.

A healthy lifestyle and a correct day plan normalize the sleep schedule and give enough energy for the new day.

Mental Health

InsomniaWhile the majority of patients with depressive states report insomnia, approximately 15% tend to hypersomnia. Sleep debt and long sleeping are both the symptoms or the underlying causes of numerous mental problems such as depression, manic-depressive illness, ADHD, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia.

A regular sleep cycle regulates the proper functioning of the nervous system. Famous sayings «The best advice is found on the pillow» or «Consult that with the pillow», and «Sleep on it» are in place for a good reason. Resting positively impacts our cognitive processes and ability to manage our own emotions, indeed because sleep and mood are closely related.

Why are you more tired when you oversleep? Somnologists say that the groggy feeling after exceeding the sleeping norms may be caused by waking up from a later sleep cycle. There are five stages of sleep. The first and second ones are the easiest to wake up from, REM is comparatively more difficult, and the third and fourth stages are the hardest. Those who sleep more hours usually wake up exactly in the two last ones and experience a «sleep hangover».

For the same reasons, short naps are better for renewing the energy level than longer naps. Waking up in later sleep cycle makes a person feel more tired than rested. That is why the preferred nap time is bordered by 30 minutes. Even when a person is deadly tired, the time for a nap should be limited. Any significant deviation from normal sleep patterns can upset the body’s rhythms and increase daytime fatigue.

A proper amount of rest is as important for mental health as mental health is for proper rest. This connection is mutually involved and vital. It’s no coincidence that the majority of people who have mental disorders also suffer from sleeping problems, and vice versa — having a sleep-related problem can put you on the edge and seriously unravel your mental and emotional well-being. Scientists have been conducting research and trying to figure out how exactly it all connects.

Physical Illnesses

DiabetesScientists are certain that individuals who exceed daily sleeping norms generally have worse health. Approximately 30% of adults in the US belong to the «long sleepers» group, and these are primarily seniors. It’s not yet fully understood if oversleeping is a sign of a disease or if it can make a person sick. The preponderating opinion is that long sleep is an indicator for underlying illnesses.

Oversleeping is as damaging as sleep deprivation. What happens when you oversleep? Here are several problems that chronic long sleepers might face:

  1. The risks of heart diseases, stroke, and early deaths. People with sleep disorders are more at risk for development of angina and ischemic heart disease.
  2. Weight gain. Hypersomnolence itself does not necessarily cause weight gain, but in combination with other physical illnesses it may lead to this result.
  3. Diabetes developing. People with sleep disorders are more vulnerable to the development of the pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia (impaired glucose intolerance).
  4. Problems with brain functioning. The irregularities in the body’s sleep clock disrupt the important processes in the brain.
  5. Increased inflammation processes. Inflammation in the organism is determined by the c-reactive protein level. According to scientific data, it is significantly higher in oversleepers.
  6. Enhanced pain. Back pain and headaches worsen from an activity deficit and lying down most of the time.
  7. Fertility problems. Moderate-sleeping females have higher pregnancy rates. Obviously due to hormonal changes and circadian rhythm affection, long-sleeping females have lower pregnancy rates.

Thusly, long sleeping might be indicative of certain problems. Healthy people usually need less rest while unhealthy ones tend to need more due to known or undiagnosed illnesses. Sleep science researchers continue exploring the causes, effects, and relationships between hypersomnia and health.

Side Effects of Oversleeping

Endocrine systemOversleepers may experience numerous side effects because their organisms struggle to sync up with the right time. The main reason for the most negative health changes during oversleeping is an interrupted circadian rhythm.

Human’s biological rhythms are in motion daily; it is a natural way of organism’s adaptation. All physiological and biological processes are managed within a 24-hour circadian clock. Circadian rhythms allow organisms to anticipate, rather than react to, daily changes in the external environment and to synchronize the behavioral and physiological activities to predictable environmental changes in order to optimize energy utilization, reproduction, and survival. These cycles are affected by light and energy contribution; thusly, resting, awakening, and the time and type of consumed food directly impact this tedious circle.

Disruptions can drastically change the system and, subsequently, the body’s reactions, impairing the natural processes. Since the endocrine system of the body responds to the hormones releasing and operates in biological rhythm, the metabolic disorders explode when the circadian rhythm is disrupted.

Biological rhythms can be affected by numerous factors, including oversleeping. This does not mean that every cell is on the same clock, but each one takes part in coordinating the metabolic processes in the cycle. Some cellular processes occur at different times; therefore, the body must optimize energy levels for sleep and wake cycles and dispart the energy for periods of activity and inactivity.

It is scientifically proven that internal clock disruption leads to metabolic imbalance. Setting and maintaining a steady circadian rhythm are vital for healthy metabolic processes in the organism and general well-being.

Physical Effects

Immune systemThe internal clock is directly related to cell regeneration, which is vital for immunity, hormonal production, and proper work of all organs.

Sleep and the circadian system are strong regulators of immunological processes. The basis of this influence is a bidirectional cooperation between the central nervous and the immune system which is mediated by transported signals (neurotransmitters, hormones, and cytokines) and direct innervation of the immune system by the autonomic nervous system.

Upsetting the whole system makes an organism to play catch up. It provokes a chronic low-grade inflammation and produces an immunodeficiency, which both have detrimental effects on health.

In combination with other dangers (alcohol consumption, poor ration, inertness, smoking, sitting position more than 7 hours), regular oversleeping increases the risk of death.

Oversleeping can cause fluid to accumulate around the face, bringing about those unsightly under-eye bags, and signs of aging, like wrinkles and fine lines.

Psychological Effects

Brain fog

Oversleeping often causes a groggy feeling (sometimes called «sleep drunkenness»). The fuzzy-headed condition between full-on sleep and alert wakefulness is characterized by slow cognitive functioning, headaches, and brain fog.

The mood of a person who woke up at midday cannot be good due to understanding that morning plans have failed. Tiredness and anger complement the impartial picture. A person feels deadly tired and realizes that tomorrow more rest is needed. It is a vicious circle which inevitably leads to depression. The only one was out is controlling this nasty habit.

American researchers found that people who exceeded the sleep norms are increasingly at risk to develop Alzheimer’s or other forms of dementia over the next 10 years.

How to Not Oversleep – Tips for Better Sleep

Tips for better sleepMost people find it hard to wake up in the morning. Here are several useful and really working tips how to not oversleep and do the important things you need to during the day:

  1. Follow a sleep schedule. The organism is an accurate mechanism, especially when it comes to regime. We simply get used to doing the same thing at the exact same time. Getting up and going to sleep at the same time will make your organism wake up even without an alarm clock.
  2. Keep in mind that one sleep cycle lasts about 90 minutes. That will help you to plan the amount of sleep and wake up before the next sleep phase starts. Waking up in the middle of a cycle may cause drowsiness in the morning.
  3. Regulate light and darkness. Light is a signal for waking up. It prevents the production of the sleep hormone, melatonin, setting up an alert mode in the organism. Darkness, on the other hand, promotes a sleepy condition. When you go to bed, turn off all sources of light. In the morning, open the curtains, use a light box, and go outside.
  4. Do morning exercises. These give energy for the new day. Sport training is not suggested in the 3 hours before bedtime, as it excites the organism and complicates falling asleep.
  5. Read a book when you go to bed. Reading is useful not only for children, but it improves sleeping in adults, too, by clearing the mind and providing more rest.
  6. Reduce naps during the day. They disrupt the night sleep schedule and complicate the falling asleep process. If a nap is unavoidable, limit it to 20 minutes.
  7. Control temperature in the bedroom. 18 °C is the perfect temperature for a good night rest. When a person is tired, the body temperature drops, then climbs again in the morning when it’s time to get up. A safe room temperature is especially important during the hot summer period.

As soon as these simple steps become your usual daily routine, problems with falling asleep will disappear. Falling asleep will turn into pleasurable ritual and a night’s sleep will become the time for the body’s regeneration.

Change the Way You Feel About Sleep

Oversleeping, along with other markers such as angriness, irritancy, or physical pain without underlying cause, are each a sign of depression. This mental disorder also includes loneliness, lack of social support, and stressful life experiences. Negative thoughts can impact a lot more than just how we present ourselves during the daytime. For this reason, some people suffer from insomnia while others oversleep.

Hypnotherapists say that the human brain is programmed at childhood and further development in adulthood simply does not happen. «A born worrier» accepts the belief that there is nothing that can be done to change the programming in the brain. Negative thoughts can cause stress, complicating sleep and carrying over throughout the day.

Positive thinkingBeing aware of what is happening and clearly realizing the thoughts are the keys in detecting subconscious negative sleep thought patterns.

The subconscious mind is a powerful thing. Oversleepers may often have the following types of thoughts:

  • “I am weak to struggle with oversleeping”;
  • “I can not perform well the new day tasks”;
  • “I differ from other people for the worse”.

To overcome negative sleep thoughts, controlling your thinking is necessary. An inability to correct your schedule and possible related problems should not be assumed as a fact. Self-persuasion to throw bad thoughts out of your mind will not bring results, either. Self-analysis, keeping the mind and body active and positive can be helpful.

Nobody is born worrying, as we are born in positive frames of mind. Neuroscience has found that any person can rewire his own brain and does not need to stay stuck in the negative mindset. It is directly related to sleep. When the bad thoughts pop up, try behavioral exercises to take the negative power away. Encourage yourself that sleep is a pleasant but limited period for restoring strengths and making your future day.

Create Your Day Plan

A person who has too much time and not enough to do in it hardly exists. Most people start a day without consideration, thinking they are going to get all their things done. Creating a strategy or a simple «to do list» is vital for a successful and productive day.

A day plan does not take much time. Spend just a few minutes to create your day schedule and see the benefits. Here are a few helpful tips:

  1. Start your day by deciding which goals you can accomplish today. Thinking realistically without overloading yourself will bring satisfaction, a feeling of being productive and successful at the end of a day. Do the hardest and most important tasks in the morning. Determine exactly when and where you are going to do each particular task. If it is not important, cross it off your plan.
  2. Set your device to ring every hour. After the signal, look at the list and compare if your real productivity matches your plan. Recommit further tasks and time if needed. The most important thing is to realize that you manage hours, not the hours manage you.
  3. Review your day in the evening and estimate the results, making preliminary outlines for tomorrow. In case, you have not done all planned tasks, do not be upset, but analyze instead: where did you get distracted and what can you do to be more productive tomorrow.

As soon as creating daily plan becomes your daily ritual, the positive outcomes will come shortly. Working wisely, consistently, and deliberately toward the goals, and doing the same things daily is a simple and effective way to streamline your life. Oversleeping will be defeated for no other reason than the fact that living a rich and fulfilling life is more interesting.

Make a Strong Sleep Schedule

Plan for the dayConsistency is the most important issue in sleep hygiene. This means going to bed and waking up at the same time in order to receive a sufficient amount of rest, reducing sleep deprivation and sleep deficits. This routine regularizes our life and warns us of the stress consequences. Setting a regular bedtime and following it daily are extra important for sufficient rest. Here are a few useful recommendations:

  • contemplate your morning tasks: what needs to be done and how much time does it take;
  • determine the wake time that allows doing morning tasks without haste (usually it takes less than an hour);
  • count back 7-8 hours from waking time, that is your rest period;
  • add one more hour for preparing to sleep.

Make a Strong Sleep Schedule

Allow yourself time to get used to and feel comfortable with this schedule. Possibly, it may take some time to adapt to it. Stay patient, and it will become very easy after a while and will feel absolutely natural. Reinforcing the work of biological clocks will help to correct the circadian rhythm and keep sleep and wakefulness balanced.

Most people assume weekends to be for complete relaxation. Ignoring your sleep schedule even for two days off unsettles you, crashing the results which were achieved during the working week and making it harder to reach them again. Slight changes (less than an hour) are not a big problem, but a weekend sleep schedule that significantly differs from the working week one is not recommended.

All this information may seem difficult to perform at first sight, but as soon as you give a try, you will be surprised how quickly and easily the new sleep schedule will become an integral part of your life.

Optimize Your Wake Up Habits

MeditateChecking the weather forecast, your email, and social media is the worst morning habit. Optimizing wake up habits is a clue to a successful and productive day. How to feel better in the morning? Try the very simple plan offered below and see the difference:

  1. Wake up as early as possible but not to the detriment of the sleep schedule.
  2. Meditation. It is a perfect way to transition from the sleep phase into wakefulness.
  3. Fill in your sleep journal.
  4. Be positive; a good mood is a clue factor for a successful day;
  5. Drinking water helps to prevent dehydration, enhances metabolism, eliminates the toxins, and boosts the brain work. Adding a few drops of lemon juice into the water helps to flush out the toxins.
  6. Drink hot energy drinks. Green tea is better than coffee and also includes caffeine.
  7. Have a healthy breakfast before your morning exercises. That will prevent weakness during training and hunger feelings afterwards. A glass of fresh juice or a piece of fruit can optimally benefit the nutrients. Do not delay too much with having breakfast. The longer you wait, the bigger meal you will eat later. Have breakfast with your family, as it will positively impact your health, family relationship, connections, and communication throughout the day.
  8. Go outside, enjoy breathing the fresh morning air, and keep a positive outlook.
  9. Have a morning walk and exercise at least 20 minutes.
  10. Have a shower. Cleaning helps to decrease stress.
  11. Make a to do list and move forward to your success.
  12. Music perfectly cheers you up. Turn on U2’s song «Beautiful Day», for instance.
  13. Get dressed and look stylish. Appearance also requires time in the morning but the result will inspire you to have a great day.

Do your best to spend no more than an hour on all of these morning things.

Your personal morning plan may differ from the one offered above according to your personal preferences, but it should be a complex of things that will definitely wake you up, raise your mood, and inspire you for wonderful achievements. It is possible to start adding healthy habits one by one progressively, working on it for 6-8 weeks until they become automatic.

Get Motivation to Stop Oversleeping

MotivationReading numerous recommendations, using a million must-do applications, and promoting yourself as being more productive might be useless, which is all because of laziness.

Many people consider themselves lazy because relaxing takes a lot of their time, and they do not have enough energy to finish the projects that have been on their agendas. To cure laziness, it is necessary to detect its real cause. These may include:

  1. Lack of self-discipline. If your schedule is tight but there remain many things undone, you may need a willpower booster.
  2. High expectations. These happen when a person wants to do everything at once. Overloading yourself leads to failed plans and feelings of being weak or incapable of finishing the started project. A person should slow down, analyze his own capacity in more realistic way, and replan the day schedule.
  3. Lack of motivation. When a person spends more time on leisure activities while the day schedule is almost empty, it means that motivation is not enough. The problems may range from not knowing what to do with life to depression.

Depending on the cause, the struggle with laziness may vary. A person should detect the exact reason of weakness and choose a plan to correct the situation.

Unfortunately, one of the most common reasons for laziness is loathing a job. This mindset may have a drastic effect on how much is done. The best solution is analyzing what a person really wants to do in life. As the wise saying goes, choose the job you love and you will never have to work a day in your life. A «soul mate» job is usually enjoyable and rewarding. If you regularly contact people who hate their job, limit your interaction with them as cynical attitudes are not beneficial for your own productivity.

Try to write a list of benefits for doing your work and estimate them. No one can make you love the work. If you feel miserable about it, counter your own thoughts and think about changing the job. The challenge may bring new emotions and an unexpected upturn in productivity, success, and emotional state subsequently.

Reduce Sleep Time Gradually

Decrease in sleep timeHow to stop oversleeping? Sticking to the new schedule may be uneasy at the beginning. To facilitate this task, gradually reduce sleep by 5-10 minutes for several days (you can go to bed later or wake up earlier). As soon as you get used to it, reduce the sleep further by half an hour, then an hour within a couple of weeks. It is a useful and working method to decrease the period of rest without heavy stress for the organism.

It is highly likely that long sleepers may experience fatigue during the first few weeks of a new schedule. Keep calm. The organism should adapt to less sleep. Eating healthy foods and exercising can help to overcome weakness and additionally make the night rest better.

When decreasing the sleep hours, remember the recommended hours which are vital for every human to function well (this is not less than 6 hours). Micro-sleeping leads to sleep debts and is risky for your health. Sleep deprivations cause severe weaknesses and reduce the ability to remain productive during the day. Zombifying and forcing yourself to adapt to a new schedule in the shortest terms is strictly prohibited.

The Harvard Business Review suggests that early risers who wake up at 4-5 A.M. tend to be more active and successful at work. Controlling the morning without haste gives an opportunity for doing many pleasurable activities which inspire for a good day (meditation, running, shower, etc.). In contrast to this, waking up at the last minute means no control, stress, and rush. Subsequently, the rest of the day will have the same style. Larks have more willpower to apply to all areas of life.

On the principle of gradual sleep time reducing, the waking time for larks should be slowly (15 minutes a week) moved forward, as it will allow adapting to the new waking time. If you really decide to be an early riser, do not mess up the schedule for at least 28 days. Sleeping past your alarm clock makes it harder to wake up on time the next morning which weakens the habit you are trying to create.

Boost Your Physical and Mental Energy

Staying alive is pretty difficult when the responsibilities in a present day are overwhelming. Most of us are energetic periodically, and the duties and stressful factors take away a lot of energy, leaving a person completely exhausted. This is not only about calories and joules, a person just wants to feel good.

Mental energyThere are numerous activities that help to conserve energy, making a tremendous effect on its levels without supplements, crazy training, or exotic diets. Healthy eating, drinking a lot of water, sticking to the evening and morning schedule, and exercising are doubtlessly beneficial, but experienced practitioners suggest more rituals for boosting physical and mental energy:

  1. Become self-aware. Notice how irritating daily events potentially affect you. Detecting the draining factors helps to control your energy levels.
  2. Meditate. Stress depletes the energy, and meditation restores it, by calming the mind down, to a controllable state. Sessions twice a day provide significant relief. Sessions of longer durations (30-45 minutes) are more effective than short ones (10-15 minutes).
  3. Repress strong emotions. Fear, anger, sadness, and other strong emotions have a powerful energy that make people spin out of control. We cannot avoid these feelings completely, but becoming more mindful can stop them when they start. Practicing mindfulness and having a high tolerance for stress is beneficial for good feelings and relations with relatives and colleagues.
  4. Cultivate understanding and give compassion to strangers. Little annoyances should not affect your mental and physical health. Someone might have cut you off on the freeway unintentionally, but do not consider everyone as an enemy.
  5. Take a minute to stop for a while. Working in panic mode drains you mentally, leads to headaches and short breath, and steals physical energy. Allowing yourself some breaks prevents physical and mental exhaustion. Remain peaceful and enjoy your life in any situation.

These recommendations are useful for everyone who works a lot, has a lot of responsibilities, and wants to control his own life. The reasonable use of daily energy given by nature can make wonderful changes in the quality of life. Efficient energy usage makes all the difference in day-to-day life, not only in work productivity, but also in maintaining peaceful conditions and enjoying life.

How Can I Treat Oversleeping?

Medical consultationAll methods described above have obvious disadvantages: they all require strict discipline and may appear ineffective eventually. If you have already lost hope and do not know how to deal with oversleeping, try medications. Modafinil (Provigil) is an analeptic drug which is used for the treatment of oversleeping related to narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and other sleep disorders which effectively improve wakefulness. It has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of sleep disorders.

Originally designed in 1976, modafinil has been tailored to cut off excessive sleep by altering certain neurotransmitters, increasing the availability of dopamine, histamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Modafinil is effective for correcting the shift duties at work, as well as enhancing memory, motivation, and the ability to focus. Effects can vary greatly in accordance with a taken dosage. The drug got the name «smart» because it can also treat fatigue and lack of sleep. It is widely used in the British and American military to keep soldiers awake and functioning at high levels for up to 40 hours at a time.

The supplement provides a much cleaner energy boost than caffeine and amphetamine-type stimulants. Unlike stimulants that target the nervous system and increase psychomotor activity, modafinil possesses a much smoother action, targeting only neurotransmitters and the receptors in the brain. As a result, focus and concentration are reached without physical and mental hyperactivity that may appear after using other stimulants.

Modafinil is a prescription drug which requires a medical recommendation. From our online chemists, you can purchase modafinil and other «smart drugs» without a medication order. Find out about its uses, effects, benefits, and side effects in the products catalog. Before starting the treatment course, receive a proper medical consultation, and discuss with a doctor the side effects and their severity.

Save yourself from oversleeping with nootropics!

Stress and Sleep

Stress and Sleep

In this article we will speak about the connection between sleep and stress and how the second one may worsen or even ruin the life of a stressed one. A good night rest is as important for organism as healthy food. Therefore, do not ignore sleepless nights. It’s very important to notice stressful condition at early stage and take effective steps to improve the condition.

Sleep impacts on health and general well-being of every person. Stress affects life of everyone daily to a greater or lesser extent. Managing sleep and stress is important for health, happiness and quality of life.

Unfortunately it appears to be problematic for many people. The vast majority of adults have trouble sleeping at least once in seven days, more than half a few times. Therefore, this problem is widely spread and worthy of attention.

What Are Symptoms and Signs of Stress?

Physical and emotional disorganization leads straightforward to stress. This condition includes gloominess, disturbance, heart attack, stroke, blood pressure drops, weak immune system resistance and autoimmune illnesses. Stress manifestations include dermatological, digestion, neurological problems. In a word, it is difficult to say which part of human life stress does not affect indeed. It affects people of any age, record level of stress found in college students.

Stress Diagram

Stress diagramThe most common symptoms of stress are represented in the table.



Frequent migraines


Depleted state


Bruxism (teeth grinding)

Tumultuous dreamsOver fatigueGambling

Lips trembling

Panic attacksExcessive irritancy

Impulse shopping

Jaw, fists clenchingDifficulties in accepting new informationUneasiness


Hands shaking

Problematic concentration

Quick mood changes

Alcohol drinking
VomitingAbsent-minded thinkingFidgeting

Drug usage, including over-the-counter ones

Stomach disorders

Incapacity or trouble in making decisionsTapping the floorExcessive smoking
ThirstCommit suicide thoughtsGrief feeling



MistrustfulnessUselessness sensationDefensive behavior
Swallowing troublesAbsent interest to own appearanceReduced sexual desire

Getting into ludicrous situations or minor accidents


Difficulties in communicationFrequent cryingProneness to conflict
BurpingHem and hawOverloaded feeling

Low working ability

Hard breathing

Inhibited thinkingEmotional outlet of anger or fearFibs, justifying for bad work

Fast pulse

ObliviousnessEmbarrassmentLoss of appetite or overweight
Frequent passage of urineShaft visionCynical humor

Bad driving

Weight changes

Aboulia (lack of will or initiative)Social isolation

Shaky voice

How Does Stress Affect Your Sleep?

Stress and sleep are directly related. A stressed person can not have a good rest because of the disturbance feeling which prevents to relax and calm thoughts down. Chronic stress makes rest almost impossible kicks out the daily regime.

Many chemical processes happen in organism when a person can’t sleep. Body is boosting high levels of stress hormones (cortisol, norepinephrine, adrenaline). Without a proper rest the hormones level is enlarging. As a result, the next day a person feels even more exhausted. In this state it is much more difficult to fall asleep. The pick of stress hormones activity comes for afternoon and evening, just when the body is usually relaxing.

The more drained a stressed person feels, the less he/she is able to concentrate on working, life activity, relations with family and friends. Sleep deprivation causes significant worsening of life.

Prolonged stressful conditions lead to physical health problems. Therefore, it is very important to care of a good night rest. Today there are many methods which help to relax, throw worrying thoughts away and calm mind down.
Stress and Sleep

The Sleep-Stress Cycle

Why people get stressed? Problems, difficult decisions, money, too many plans to do… No matter what the reason is, these thoughts rob sleeping time. The vicious sleep-stress cycle has begun. A stressed person does not have a proper night rest, the next day he/she feels even more tired and suffers from sleepless nights again.

Statistics report that people who sleep 5-7 hours every night are under potential stress attack (25.8%) than those who sleep 8 hours (6.5%). The sleep-stress cycle is a result of psychological and biological processes. Absence of good rest complicates concentration on important things during active part worsening stress condition. Also, bad night rest includes more stress hormones. As a result, less hormone-quieting chemicals are produced.

5 Ways Stress That Wreck Your Sleep

StressEveryone collapses with stress in a particular period of life. There are 5 ways stress that affect our sleep and health respectively:

  1. Psychologically strained condition prevents to have a rest that amount of hours which is enough for humans health. About half of stressed people awake at night, other half has troubles in the morning after torturous toss and turns and poor sleeping. The quantity of hours which are necessary for human’s organism recovery is quite individual. The aggregate figure is 7-9 hours, though scientific researches say that Americans would be healthier and happier if extra 1-1,5 hour would be added to rest time every night. A stressed person’s mind is too busy, therefore effective rest becomes unreal.
  2. Even if a stressed one falls asleep at night, those lucky hours do not bring recovery, because the quality of sleep is very low.
  3. Stress rises insomnia risk. Frequent sleepless conditions attack night rest entirely in 19% of cases. Each irritating factor rises up insomnia possibility.
  4. Brain never stops working. Normally, the nervous system turns a calmer regime at night, but not for a stress sufferer. The brain of over worried person remains hyperactive, keeping a person awaken all the time.
  5. A sufferer appears in vicious cycle: a person suffers from sleeplessness because of stress, then lack of rest makes him even more exhausted.

Tips for Managing Stress for Better Sleep

There are a few simple methods which might help you to overcome sleeplessness and calm mind down. Try one of those listed below:

  1. Good sleepAromatherapy. Scientists make sure that herbal aromas are being a helpful remedy in insomnia cases and perfectly relax the body.
  2. Drink herbal teas. Mint, lavender, marjoram, daisy or mix of herbs are very helpful for relaxation. Soft taste of herbs calms down body and mind and prepares organism to rest.
  3. Have a herbal bath. Herbals have unique relaxing features. Adding herbal infusion to warm bath helps to relax and abstract of negative thoughts.
  4. Practice relaxation techniques like yoga or meditation. Use deep breaths. Calming music enhances the effect, relaxes mind. Use hypnosis for stress management.
  5. Visit massage therapist. Those who know a few China methods of self-massage should not miss a chance to try it.
  6. Put thoughts in order. Try to write all negative ones on a sheet of paper and then throw it away or cut. Clean your mind completely.
  7. Train your consciousness. Imagine a beautiful landscape or remember the most pleasant moment in your life and concentrate on this picture. Do not let other thoughts attack your delight. Just enjoy the moment, give attention to details (sound of the ocean, laugh of a child, birds singing etc).

If all those methods do not help, think of using somnologist or psychiatric. Possibly the problem is much more serious than you might think.

Can Over-the-Counter Medications Help?

How to reduce stress independently? Unfortunately, there are no any non-prescription anxiety medical preparation. It is explained by affecting patient’s brain chemistry. This is a serious matter which can not happen without doctor’s control. It should be noted that light symptoms of disturbance still can be treated by over-the counter preparations, though consultation with a medical representative is still recommended. The example of safe remedies is represented below for awareness.

Over-the-Counter Medications


Passiflora incarnata (passion flower)

All plant parts are used for preparing of tea or infusions separately or in the mix with other herbs. For easy usage infusions should be poured to non alcoholic liquids. The plant helps to struggle with sleeplessness and insomnia. It is absolutely safe, efficient and can be used even for children.

Valeriana offiinalis (valerian root)

The root is used for preparing tea. Due to its bitter taste it is much more convenient to take the remedy in pills. The gel capsules are better for quick absorption. Valeriana makes sedative effect, successfully struggles with sleeplessness and nervousness. It does not have side effects, though combining it with other herbs of identical purpose is not suggested.

Hypericum Perforatum (St. John’s wort)

Its effect is similar to prescription drug Prozac. It exists in pills, dry substances match for making tea or infusion. St. John’s wort is known for its sedative and antidepressant effect and widely used for treatment of depressive disorder (light form) and anxiousness. It is safe and can be taken by kids and teenagers. The plant interacts with several groups of prescription drugs, so doctor’s consultation before the usage is recommended.

Withania Somnifera (winter cherry)

Indian addition is being sold in pills. It is used for treatment of depressive and anxious states and has no adverse symptoms. The remedy is not recommended for pregnant or nursing ladies and those who use monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)

This is amino acid which exists in particular products (turkey, milk, pumpkin). During metabolization in the human organism it turns into the chemical tryptophan which increases producing of serotonin and melatonin in the brain cells. Both hormones respond for psyche stabilizing. 5-HTP is available in capsules which should be a part of daily food ration. Side effects are absent.

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

It is a well-known immune response modifier which naturally exists in fresh fruits and berries. Statistics had shown that a lack of this vitamin causes mind diseases and anxiousness. It is sold in form of pills and liquid. Is absolutely safe for usage and has minimal risk of overdosing.


One of necessary minerals is available in pills and is being a constant compound of multivitamins. It increases mental function.


The mineral which exists in food, but also comes in medical forms (pills, vitamins). It is needed for processing other ferments. Medical consultation before the usage is necessary, because overdosing makes a harmful effect which manifests in problematic minerals and vitamins absorption.

Vitamin B complex

It is available in pill forms which are useful for body functioning. Its lack is related to such conditions as manic-depressive illness, depressive disorder. Vitamin B complex successfully treats mental illness in combination with magnesium and zinc vitamin C.

Our online chemists ModafinilXL offers such effective drugs as Waklert, Nuvigil (the active ingredient of which is Armodafinil), Provigil (Modafinil). Nootropics help to avoid stress, calm down, organize your activity and rest correctly.

Professional helpThe newest pharmacological innovations are directed to struggle with depression, enhancing life energy, perfect mood and concentration. Psychostimulants are very popular nowadays among students, work addicted, businessmen and just fly-by-night guys. Try a new easy solution and forget about sleepless, depression and bad life.

When Do I Need Professional Help?

Difficult form of stress turn into serious diseases (like sleep apnea, sleep paralysis). Such conditions demand professional help. Do not experiment with your health. Hard headaches, vomiting, syncope are serious stress manifestations. Visit specialists immediately if any serious signs of disease occurred.

Hypersomnia Definition and Types

Hypersomnia Definition and Types

Hypersomnia is an enfeebling neurological disease that causes people to sleep enormously, yet still be zealous for more rest. This illness ruins carrier, life and family relations. The symptoms appear at puberal growth stage, but it often takes a decade for new patients to be diagnosed.

The researches about what is hypersomnia and its performance go on and kindle scientists interest. There are numerous medical works about what is idiopathic hypersomnia, but even more researches should be done in futurity.

The ailment holds many secrets, though many facts are evident.

What Is Hypersomnia (Excessive Sleepiness)?

Hypersomnia (hypersomnolence) is defined as a state of excessive sleepiness (more than 10 hours in a day) or incapacity to feel refection that sleep normally imparts. Chronic patients sleep up to 18 hours but they still feel fatigue after waking up. Disorder has been developing sluggish over a long period. It may be accompanied by mental disorders like ADD.

Hypersomniacs may catch forty winks several times during the day if they feel tiredness. Other concomitant symptoms are:

  • disturbance;
  • impatience;
  • lack of energy;
  • excitation;
  • heavy mind;
  • delayed speech;
  • anorexia;
  • pseudesthesia;
  • poor memory;
  • sluggishness.

The symptoms may be severe enough and affect sufferer’s carrier, social and family life.

Hypersomnia Definition and TypesEpworth Sleepiness Scale

The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is meant to be used to measure rates of day sleep. Index 18 and more means that an enrolled is very sleepy. 10-18 implies observed sleep. Improving sleep regimen and visiting somnologist is highly suggested. The scale results should be discussed with a personal medical adviser.

Estimation should be done by totaling the numbers which suit most to usual habits:

  • 0 = never sleep;
  • 1 = small chance to nap;
  • 2 = average possibility to rest;
  • 3 = high expectations to fall asleep.

The Test:

Surrounding and types of activity

Probability to fall asleep

Book reading

TV Viewing

City places of rest

Being a passenger in a car an hour and more

Daytime rest

Chatting to anyone

Quietness after meals without alcohol

While driving in traffic jam


Epworth Sleepiness Scale level

Hypersomnia Types

HypersomniaThere are several types of sleeping disorder which both have one common feature: redundant sleep. Main hypersomnia types are primary and secondary:

  1. Primary hypersomnia (idiopathic hypersomnia) is quite rare. Patient may sleep well at night, but in daytime deadly tiredness is re-asserting itself. Idiopathic hypersomnia sufferers sleep 10-21 hours daily and such regime lasts years along. Patient is:
  • uncontrollable;
  • bad-tempered;
  • furious;
  • falls back and sleeps again;
  • suffers from headache and lack of concentration;
  • climbs the walls;
  • behaves inadequately.

The symptoms last up to 4 hours from waking up in the morning or after a nap and are named «sleep drunkenness». After that a sick one succumbs to the intense sleeping over again. Narcolepsy, Kleine-Levin syndrome are in the list of idiopathic hypersomnia diseases. The reason of most ones is unbeaten, the illnesses require further researches. Primary hypersomnia in sign of diabetes is rarely reported.

  1. Secondary hypersomnia is a concomitant sign of other diseases. Patients may feel constant sleepiness in acute stadium, though later the symptoms may change. They often live a usual life, even suffer from insomnia sometimes. The conditions which cause secondary hypersomnia are commonly connected with following illnesses:
  • kidney;
  • liver;
  • blood-vascular;
  • hormonal;
  • neurologic;
  • metabolical;
  • psychologic;
  • encephalomeningitis.

This type of hypersomnia does not require medical treatment unlike the symptoms of primary hypersomnolence. It goes away by itself.

Chronic Form

NarcolepsyChronic form is descriptive of at least 90 days of excess daytime drowsiness. It includes multitudinous etiologies and has been expected by International Classification of Sleep Disorders. It subsumes such widespread neurological illnesses as:

  • narcolepsy with sudden loss of muscle tone or without it;
  • primary hypersomnolence (constant);
  • recurrent primary hypersomnia (with protracted sleeping periods up to several days which relapse once a year or more);
  • ISS (behaviorally-induced insufficient sleep syndrome);
  • secondary hypersomnolence;
  • hypersomnia called by drugs usage;
  • SDB (sleep disordered breathing);
  • periodic limb moving movement disorders;
  • other unknown physiologic states.

The etiology is significant for diagnosing and clarifying the syndromes. Chronic form is defined on base of detailed clinical review, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, polysomnography and sleep latency tests.

Primary Type

Fairly often people live with primary type of hypersomnia without realizing it. Its main symptom is a sleepy feeling all day along. A sufferer is exhausted even after a nap, awakening in the morning is problematic.

Clear reasons of its appearing are still unknown. Recent elaborations suggested that the sickness starts in brain cells which regulate sleep and vigil. IH sufferers are young people up to 30 y.o. The disease has been accumulating during years, manifesting itself in non-ability to work, family conflicts, impossibility to drive a vehicle without specific medication.

DoctorPeople who often feel an urge need to sleep in day time should appeal for medical help. Doctor will offer to pass the tests at clinic which does sleep studying. Multiple sleep latency test will help to diagnose the disease. It is an important examine which helps to realize that IH is not caused by other illnesses (like secondary type).

By today there is no special cure but expectant treatment. In 10-15% cases primary hypersomnolence resolves itself. The systems in the brain are being learned and possibly scientists will be ready to represent a new drug developed for IH.

In case of IH diagnosing, the life style must be corrected, particularly biological clock. Much depends on patient and support of his relatives.

Acute Sleepiness

Acute Sleepiness is an explosive onset of exaggerated sleeping feeling. Bouts of extreme drowsiness might be caused by different illnesses. The most frequent cases are represented in the table.



Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

A rare infectious illness, carried through certain tiny flies, which occurs from days to weeks. Death is common without treatment.

SEID (Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease)

Feeling of tiredness doesn’t go away after rest and limits life activity. SEID is difficulty diagnosed.


A rare condition which is defined by intensive muscular insufficiency.


Chronic disorder, characterized by brief attacks of deep sleep in relaxing surrounding.


Mental health impairment. Includes any sign of depression, bipolar disorder.

Sleep paralysis

Phenomenon. Loss of motor function. Relies to physical and emotional disorders.

OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) / hypopnea syndrome

Pause of breathing due to blocked or narrowed airways.

Mixed sleep apnea

Combination of central and obstructive apnea, often happen to kids with abnormal control breathing.

Central sleep apnea

Respiration stops and starts again over sleep. A sign of brain, heart diseases or stroke.
PLMD (periodic limb movement disorder) including restless leg syndrome

Reflective lower limbs movements during sleep.

DSPD (delayed sleep phase disorder)

Dysregulation of biological clock.
Night terror

Nightmares. Often happen in childhood.

Acute sleeping feeling often comes without any pathological process in organism. Everyone is familiar with desire to dive into a deep sleep for an hour or two after eating. Food is the only one direct link to this feeling. There are a few simple tips which help to resist the temptation and go on an active day:

  1. Divide big meals into several small ones. Eating by small portions a few times a day will release stomach from hard digestion work which actually calls instinct to nap. Do not stay longer than 3 hours without food, use healthy snacks.
  2. Always eat balanced breakfast: fresh fruits, cereals, whole grain breads, yogurt are very welcomed. Healthy food increases human mental and physical functioning.
  3. Exclude processed and starch-filled products. Eat complex carbohydrates and high-protein meals: lean meat, beans, broccoli, sea vegetables etc.
  4. Avoid alcohol drinks during lunch. Such beverages as beer and wine make sedative effect. Reduce caffeinated drinks.

If the food suggestions appeared ineffective, discuss your health condition with a doctor.

Severe Form

HallucinationsSevere forms of hypersomnia are phenomenons. The conditions are still an unexplored field. Scientists suggest neither the reason of its appearing nor the ways to get a patient cured. A few examples are below:

  1. Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare disease which affects teenagers up to 16 y.o., it belongs to recurrent type of hypersomnia. Among manifestation signs are cognitive deterioration, amelia, depersonalization disorder. Boys are more imperilment to be affected than girls. Overwhelming majority of patients are hyper sexual (boys) or depressive (girls). 30% of sick people are inadequate, have pseudesthesia. Hypersomnia happens sporadically. The first episode is forced by an infection which recurrent during a year for a median of 14 years. Between episodic manifestation patients live normal for a healthy person life. For therapy of these severe cases stimulants and mood stabilizers are highly recommended.
  2. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a disease in which the human immune system attacks nervous system, leading to inability to coordinate muscle activity and paralysis. Pricking sensations in the legs and weariness are the first presentations. Fatigue feeling may spread through all the body until a patient is completely paralyzed. The illness is life treating, hospital admission is necessary. The disease may affect 1 of 100.000 people. Patients see hallucinations, paranoid delusions, vivid dreams, illusions. No one knows how the attacking process happen as well as what forces it.

What Is Pathological Sleepiness?

The medical term of pathological sleepiness defines it as excessive sleep caused by neurologic disorders. The pathologies of sleep can be subdivided into six main groups:

  • insomnia;
  • breathing disorders;
  • central origin hypersomnia;
  • biological time disorder;
  • parasomnias;
  • moving disorder.

Sleep disordersEvery group has numerous signs and divides into subtypes. The clinical norm of sleep pathologies are contained in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. A person of any age is in zone of risk, but some abnormalities are peculiar for children only. REM parasomnias attack males in the elderly age (50–65 years). Restless legs syndrome is 10-20% higher in old age group and increases with age.

Can Smart Medications Cure Hypersomnia?

A precise diagnosis, individual screening of therapy and regular follow-up to monitor response to treatment are the keys to successful cure of hypersomnia. Modafinil and its interpretations Provigil, Modalert; Armodafinil (Nuvigil) are effective drugs for hypersomnia therapy. This state might be very debilitating. Work, social life are often compromised, so be sure to encourage a patient. On our site ModafinilXL you can find smart drugs at cheap price.

Modafinil and Sleep Deprivation

Modafinil and Sleep Deprivation

Sleep problems and Modafinil: can nootropics cause insomnia, sleep deprivation, apnea? Safe ways to level Modafinil effects on sleep.

Modafinil, also known by the brand name Provigil, is a drug commonly prescribed to those with sleep disorders resulting in tiredness, like narcolepsy or sleep apnea. It was first approved for narcolepsy in the late 90s and has since been used to treat similar sleep disorders.

These disorders can affect a person’s ability to stay awake for the usual daily cycle. There is no cure for most sleep disorders, but with this medication, many people can live full and productive lives. This drug is highly effective in improving memory and cognition and is now used for a variety of off-label purposes. It has been known to help with test-taking aptitude, job functioning, and even jet-lag.

This article will highlight some of the most commonly asked questions about this drug, as well as the effects, warnings, and precautions one should take. Modafinil can be highly beneficial for those who want to increase alertness and the capacity of their overall brain function.

Modafinil and Sleep Cycles

This medication comes in pill form and is to be used to keep the person awake and alert. One benefit of this medication is that, unlike other psychostimulants, it does not give the user jitters or shakes. It is important to take medicine directly as prescribed to maintain a healthy sleep cycle. By taking as directed, a patient can have increased alertness during the day and sleep regularity at night. Keeping a proper sleep cycle is important for a healthy body and mind.

Modafinil and Sleep Deprivation

Normal Sleep Cycle

A normal sleep cycle is characterized by deep fluctuations between a semi-conscious state and deep R.E.M. sleep. Our minds usually control this at a steady pace, between 70 to 100 minutes. Your mind slowly drifts down into a deeper state of unconsciousness from the first state, which is a light sleep, until you reach the phase of R.E.M. or Rapid Eye Movement, where you are in a complete dream state. The body completes a sleep cycle a couple of times per night. Usually, if a person ends their cycle without waking, they will not remember their dreams. It is only when a person wakes up during the sleep cycle, interrupting that cycle, can they recall what they were dreaming. This disruption in the sleep cycle can cause sleep deprivation and effects similar to not having enough sleep. It is important to complete sleep cycles, so if you feel you are waking too often and are not feeling rested, seek the advice of a medical professional.

Effects on the Brain

Modafinil effects on the brainModafinil comes in pill form and is known as today’s smart drugs. Modafinil affects the brain’s memory and alertness. It also increases the dopamine levels within the synapse of the two sides of the brain. Now, many call it a smart drug because of the increase it gives to memory, cognition and overall intelligence. Studies have shown improvements in all of these areas in those using Modafinil versus those who are not. Talk to your doctor about possible long-term effects of the medication.

Modafinil and Sleep Deprivation

Modafinil can cause sleep deprivation if not taken properly. It is not recommended to take this medication later in the day because of its long-lasting effects. If taken too late in the day it can keep the user awake for anywhere from 10 to 15 hours later. It is not safe for anyone to purposefully keep themselves awake by using this, and it should be used responsibly. Always take the dosage that is recommended and take it in the mornings to avoid possible sleep deprivation.

Sleep Deprivation

Sleep deprivation is a problem faced by many Americans today. It can be caused by a variety of things, including stress, sleep apnea, overworking, obesity, and a lower quality of life. It takes about 16 hours of the body being awake before it becomes too tired and starts to prepare itself for a sleep cycle. Your body may decide to act on its own by giving you brief sleep attacks. Similar to the attacks seen in narcolepsy, the body will take over and start to get sleep in short intervals, also known as microsleep. Sleep deprivation can be dangerous if it happens in a work environment, especially if the worker is operating heavy machinery or driving a vehicle. Many accidents on the road are caused by sleep deprivation, and it is just as dangerous as drink driving. After 48 hours it becomes almost impossible for an individual to keep themselves awake and control microsleep episodes.

National Sleep Values

SleepThe amount of sleep needed per night differs from person to person depending on their age, but it is usually between five to 10 hours.

Here are the values recommended by the National Sleep Foundation:

  • newborn babies – 14 to 17 hours per day;
  • infants – 12 to 15 hours per day;
  • toddlers in the range of one to two years – 11 to 14 hours;
  • teens – eight to 10 hours per day;
  • adults – seven to nine hours per day;
  • elderly – seven to eight hours per day.

The statistical chart below shows how much sleep we actually get on average:

AgeGenderAverage Sleep Amount
15-19male9.6 hours
15-19female9.5 hours
20-24male8.9 hours
20-24female8.8 hours
25-34male8.5 hours
25-34female8.6 hours
35-44male8.3 hours
35-44female8.4 hours
45-54male8.2 hours
45-54female8.4 hours
55-64male8.2 hours
55-64female8.3 hours
65 and upmale9.0 hours
65 and upfemale8.9 hours

Warnings and Precautions

PharmacistWhile Modafinil is safe to take, there can be some side effects. The most common side effect is insomnia. You should do research and talk to your pharmacist before taking this medication. Find out if you have any allergies to this medication ahead of time. Let them know if you have any other allergies because this medicine may contain inactive ingredients that could cause an allergic reaction. You should speak with a doctor if you have a known history of heart problems, such as irregular heartbeat, liver problems such as liver disease, any type of mental or mood disorder like mania or depression, and any abuse of drugs or a family history of such abuse. These all should be taken into account when considering if Modafinil is for you.


There is some known interaction between Modafinil and other drugs. It is important to know how drug interactions work so that you can decrease your risk of side effects. Make sure that you are keeping a list of all medications that you are currently taking, and keep that list regular and up to date. Include both prescription and non-prescription drugs in your lists. There have been known interactions between these drugs and street drugs, so be safe and make sure not to take anything that will have a harmful reaction.

This drug has also been known to decrease the effectiveness of some medications, such as birth control in women. Take extra precautions against pregnancy if you plan to use this drug. Modafinil also has an effect on how long other drugs can stay in your body and how well they work. One example of a drug that can be affected is the drug used to treat hepatitis C, while another example is the reaction between Modafinil and caffeine. Caffeine should not be taken with this medication as it can increase side effects and cause the shakes or jitters. Patients have reported headaches and insomnia from the combination of these as well. Modafinil is similar to Armodafinil tablets and these two medications should not be taken together.



Insomnia is characterized by the inability to sleep during the usual hours within the human sleep cycle. A person’s body may be tired, but due to insomnia, they are unable to sleep. Insomnia can last for hours and can continue for days or weeks depending on the individual. In extreme cases of insomnia, a person can inhibit severe side effects such as loss of physical coordination and vivid hallucinations. It can cause danger when operating machinery because it affects the quickness of your reaction time. Even with the aid of Modafinil, you may not be able to react quickly enough. It is important to see a medical professional if your insomnia has gone on for more than a couple of days.

Where to Buy Modafinil Online?

You can purchase Modafinil online. A quick web search should show you websites such as modafinilxl.com. This is an example of a website that is a safe and affordable way to order Modafinil online. Use one of these online pharmacies to make sure you are getting your Modafinil from a reliable source and use responsibly.

Fatigue and Depression

Fatigue and Depression

Depression and chronic fatigue often occur in conjunction with one another. In fact, chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic depression are often mistaken for one another and doctors can often misdiagnose depression when it’s actually chronic fatigue. Find out how are fatigue and depression linked, what are their common symptoms and how to cure these ailments with the help of a vitamin, natural supplements, foods and nootropics.

Chronic fatigue syndrome and depression generally affect people differently, although they may share common symptoms. With depression, a person may feel fatigued and not be interested in pursuing activities that they used to enjoy.

In chronic fatigue syndrome, the person may want to pursue the activities but feels too tired to do so. Although chronic fatigue and chronic depression are two separate disorders, a person may actually have both. Fatigue can lead to depression and vice versa.

What Is Depression?

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by feelings of sadness and loss of interest in daily activities. Chronic depression is not just about having the blues. It’s a serious illness that often requires long-term treatment. Many factors can contribute to the onset of depression, including: difficult life circumstances, traumatic experiences, grief, genetics, changes in hormone levels, medical conditions, stress, substance abuse. Any of these conditions can contribute to depression on their own or in conjunction with other factors.

The World Health Organization states that depression affects approximately one in five women and one in ten men at some point in their life, making it one of the most disabling disorders in the world. Depression affects emotions and behaviors as well as physical health.

Fatigue and depression

Some of the major symptoms of depression are:

  • feelings of sadness, hopelessness, guilt, and anger;
  • loss of interest in friends, family, and favorite activities including sex;
  • having trouble concentrating and making decisions;
  • memory loss;
  • thoughts of or attempts at self-harm;
  • delusions and/or hallucinations (usually occur only in very severe depression);
  • withdrawal from people and societal functions;
  • substance abuse;
  • missing work and other commitments;
  • fatigue and lack of energy during the day even after sleep;
  • unexplained body aches and pain;
  • weight loss or weight gain and/or changes in appetite;
  • sleep disturbances: insomnia or hypersomnia (too much sleep);
  • sexual issues.

Although people with depression may not have all of the above symptoms, they generally have at least a few of them to receive a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Having one of these symptoms does not necessarily indicate depression. A person with depression will generally have several, if not most, of the above symptoms.

What Is Fatigue?

General fatigue is characterized by tiredness, lethargy, listlessness or exhaustion. Chronic fatigue is fatigue that persists for more than a month but, generally, a diagnosis is given when the fatigue is present for at least six months.

Both physical and mental fatigue may occur in conjunction with depression. Chronic fatigue is a condition that causes a person to feel excessively tired. The diagnosis is given when no other underlying causes for the fatigue can be found.

With chronic fatigue, symptoms often include:

  • Fatiguefatigue;
  • extreme exhaustion that lasts more than 24 hours after exercise;
  • loss of memory or concentration;
  • unrefreshing sleep;
  • headaches;
  • joint pain (particularly pain that moves between joints without redness or swelling);
  • muscle pain;
  • sore throat;
  • tender lymph nodes.

Similarities and differences between chronic depression and chronic fatigue:

Chronic depression symptomsChronic fatigue symptoms
Feel better after exerciseExtreme exhaustion post exercise
Unrefreshed sleepInsomnia or hypersomnia (excessive sleep)
Patients attribute illness to external experiencesPatients attribute illness to psychological factors
Feeling weaker and having more painFewer pain complaints
Frequent or recurring sore throatN/A
Tender lymph nodesN/A
Performed worse on cognitive tests than healthy patientsPerformed worse on cognitive tests than healthy patients
Low DHEA levelsLow DHEA sulfate derivative level
More non-REM sleep disturbancesMore REM sleep disturbances

Can Depression Cause Fatigue and Vice Versa?

Both fatigue and depression can have a common cause and can occur in conjunction with one another. Chronic fatigue can also cause depression and, likewise, depression can lead to chronic fatigue. People who experience chronic fatigue generally want to engage in life activities but cannot due to feeling exhausted all of the time. Not being able to engage can lead to feelings of depression.

Guilt is a common symptom of major depressive disorder. In depression, guilt can be delusional or broad where a person may not really know why they feel guilty. In chronic fatigue, a person can feel guilt over their inability to engage in activities. This guilt can translate into broader feelings of depression.

Stress is a very common sign of both fatigue and depression. When stress levels become too excessive, our bodies are affected and both mental and physical fatigue occurs. If the stress continues, a person can reach a state of despair. Despair, in turn, can cause additional fatigue which sets up a vicious cycle of chronic fatigue and depression, making overcoming the disorder difficult.

What Are Symptoms When You Have Fatigue and Depression?

Chronic fatigue syndrome is generally a physical disorder whereas depression is primarily a mental one but both conditions can have overlapping symptoms:

  • depressed mood;
  • Loss of appetitediminished interest in favorite activities;
  • weight loss/gain and loss of appetite;
  • sleep disturbances or non-restful sleep upon waking in morning;
  • constant fatigue and loss of energy;
  • feelings of guilt and worthlessness;
  • inability to concentrate effectively;
  • thoughts of death and suicidal tendencies;
  • physical complaints such as muscle and joint pain;
  • general feelings of anxiety.

How to Treat Depression and Fatigue?

If fatigue is present due to depression, treatment with an antidepressant will generally help. As the depression fades, the feelings of tiredness and lethargy will go as well. In chronic fatigue, however, therapies beyond antidepressants are usually needed. Unfortunately, there is no cure for chronic fatigue and since it affects people differently, treatments can be wide ranging.

Lifestyle changes can help patients of both depression and fatigue. Other than prescription medications, finding an effective way to reduce stress is generally the first step in alleviating symptoms of depression and fatigue. Improving sleep patterns through reduced stress or over-the-counter sleep aids is also helpful in relieving depression and fatigue.


For severe depression and fatigue, it’s generally recommended that you seek the advice of a doctor. But there are some natural cures using vitamins that people can take to help with feelings of depression and to boost energy levels.

B vitamins

Vitamins B, particularly folic acid and B6, can play an important role in helping to beat depression. These vitamins help to produce brain chemicals that affect mood and low levels of B12 and B6 have been linked to depression.

Vitamin D can also help. Studies done on patients with depression showed that vitamin D supplementation helped to combat their anxiety and depression. Also, the main function of vitamin D is to increase absorption in the intestines of calcium and phosphorus, and interferes with the development of cancer.

Natural Supplements

A lot of times, depression and fatigue are caused by excessive stress. There are natural supplements and herbal remedies that can help diminish to stress. L-tyrosine is an amino acid that can actually counteract stress before it even happens. Taking 500 to 2000 milligrams before a stressful event can help to mitigate stress and anxiety.

Adaptogen herbs are a group of natural substances that increase resistance to stress and also increase general well-being. Ashwagandha is an adaptogenic herb that has been used successfully in the treatment of depression. As with any at home treatment, it’s best to seek a doctor’s advice if you have any serious medical conditions.

Foods to Fight Fatigue and Depression

Simple changes in diet can help depression and fatigue. Using food to fight symptoms is a time-tested method of creating general wellness.

Good nutritional habits can boost energy without having to resort to substances like caffeine that can have negative effects. Often in depressed patients and also patients with fatigue, magnesium levels will be low. Adding nuts to your diet can help boost magnesium levels and your energy.

Complex carbohydrates from whole grains can also boost energy levels naturally since they’re absorbed into the bloodstream more slowly thus keeping blood sugar levels low. Too much fat in your diet can make you feel sluggish, but adding healthy fats from foods such as avocados, coconut, and olive oil can give your body what it needs without weighing it down.

Foods to fight fatigue and depression

Beat Depression and Fatigue with Nootropics

The best meds to combat depression and fatigue tackle the problem at its source: the brain. Taking nootropics (a drug used to enhance cognitive function and memory) for depression and fatigue is a common treatment. These cognitive enhancers, also called smart drugs, help to improve brain function and have mood-boosting properties. Some nootropics that are used for fatigue and depression are Aniracetam, Sulbutiamine, Noopept, Adrafinil, and Inositol.

Can Modafinil Help to Cure Fatigue and Depression?

Modafinil, or Provigil, is a eugeroic drug that helps to promote wakefulness. Although its primary function is as a treatment for daytime sleepiness, Modafinil has been used as an off-label medicine to treat depression. Since Modafinil is a nootropic or smart drug, it is one of the best meds in overcoming cognitive impairment or “brain fog” typically seen with depression. It also treats fatigue by promoting wakefulness. Armodafinil is a drug with similar actions. These drugs can cause nausea but can be taken either before or after eating.

When Do You Need to See a Doctor?

Depression and chronic fatigue syndrome are serious disorders. If symptoms persist for more than a few weeks, it’s important to see a physician in order to rule out any other illnesses. Quick treatment can help to alleviate symptoms and stop the vicious cycle of depression and fatigue. ModafinilXL offers the best solutions for treating these ailments.

Study with Depression

Study with Depression

The National Institute for Mental Health estimates that 16 million American adults per year experience at least one major depressive episode. Statistically, this means that you or someone you know is currently affected by the disorder, and is hampered in their ability to work, play, or study. The good news is that there are many different forms of treatment available that can be tried without even talking to a doctor. See which of the following are the most appropriate for you.

What Is Depression?

First, gaining a clear understanding of what depression is and how it affects the body and mind is important. The American Psychiatric Association defines depression as “feelings of sadness and/or loss of interest in activities once enjoyed”. Although doctors have not been able to identify a single cause for depression, it is believed that the condition is linked to a serotonin deficiency in the brain.

Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood. Many of the most effective treatments for depression involve restoring serotonin levels, either through healthy habits or medication. Take a look at a few of the suggestions below to restore balance to your own levels. Remember that unstable mood and swings can be first signs of bipolar disorder.

Ways that Depression Can Affect You

It is crucial to understand that depression affects the mind as well as the body. Those experiencing the disorder will feel more sluggish and tired than usual and are less likely to want to engage in productive activities. Studying with depression can be a major challenge, as the ability to focus, learn, or even work up the motivation to begin can feel impossible to those suffering. Finding out how to overcome these symptoms is the first step toward regaining control of your life.

Also, keep in mind that depression is intertwined with anxiety. Periods of lethargy and inactivity can be paired regularly with moments of heightened awareness and self-consciousness. The goal when treating depression and anxiety-related disorders is to strike a balance between the two.

Study with Depression

How Can I Know That I Have Depression?

There are a few tell-tale signs to look for self-diagnosing depression. If you are experiencing more than a few of the following with regularity, then it is likely you are suffering from the disease.

  • lethargy and excessive sleeping;
  • lack of appreciation for once-loved activities;
  • drop in productivity;
  • diminishing of social contact.

Try Next Exercises

Often, the most immediate and effective way to treat the effects of depression and resume working is to go for a quick jog or trip to the gym. Physical exercise has the effect of boosting feel-good chemicals in the bloodstream, called endorphins, and improving mood. While it may not be a long-term solution to depression, working regular exercise into your routine can be a strong cornerstone to a healthy and happy life.

Talk About It

Woman talks with manTalk therapy has been a simple but effective way doctors can treat the effects of depression and rebuild the patient’s positive outlook on life within a matter of months. However, turning to those close to you can be a more readily-available alternative for many people. Even if your goal is to resume study and depression is the hurdle standing in your way, taking a few minutes out of your schedule can be a way to save time in the long run.

Call a Friend or Family Member

Sustained relationships are the best for long-term success against depression; however, it can sometimes be difficult to find new people to engage with when we are already feeling low. That is why turning to those we already know can be a good option. Family members and lasting friends will often be willing to lend an ear, and after just a short phone call you might be surprised how effective their conversation can be.

Take a Walk

Combining light exercise and sunshine is a great strategy to lift your spirits in a moment of crisis. The sun can warm us up and make us feel positive, but it is also a natural source of vitamin D. As long as you live somewhere that receives direct sunlight, getting your daily dose is just a matter of stepping outdoors for 20 minutes. And for those who have cold, cloudy weather for some or all of the year, don’t worry. You can get your own vitamin D supplements through online pharmacies.


Sometimes, the best way to take back control of the mind for study during exams is to find a quiet space and concentrate. Meditation has shown many positive benefits for those struggling with depression and anxiety. The goal is to allow practitioners to let go of their past regrets and future fears, focus on the present and enjoy the benefits of a collected consciousness.

Eat Something Tasty

Tasty foodYour local coffee shop is often a great one-two punch for treating anxiety. For one thing, it gets you out of the house and around other people, but secondly, it offers a selection of coffee and tasty treats. Enjoying something sweet in moderation can help boost the brain and pull it out of repetitive cycles of depression and anxiety.

Have a Rest and Try to Sleep

One of the symptoms of depression is increased sleep, and over time increased sleep can actually make individuals feel more depleted than refreshed. However, when the world feels like too much and you could use a break from it all, taking a short nap can be an effective reset switch. Power naps, or rests that last for between 15 to 30 minutes, can be surprisingly effective for those with depression when used strategically.

Treatment Options

There are a number of antidepressant medications that have proven effective over recent decades. However, different individuals react uniquely to each kind and so sometimes a long-term solution can be a process of trial and error. SSRI drugs work by regulating the serotonin levels in the bloodstream, generating a sense of well-being over time. While they take several months to fully enter the body, they can provide a sense of stability once they start working.

Try Smart Drugs

Modafinil smart drugAlso known as nootropics, smart drugs are stimulants that can be helpful if you find that trying to study while depressed is too much of a challenge. Smart drugs like Modafinil or Modalert can boost focus, energy, and brain power dramatically after just taking a single dose. You can find a wide selection of different nootropics on Modafinilxl.com, whether you need help to study, staying awake, or treating your long-term depression. If you want to know more, read this article about Modafinil smart drug and depression.

Take Vitamins

Getting a full dose of different vitamins is an important cornerstone to long-term health, both physical and psychological. Take a look at a few of the major players and see what kinds of benefits they can bring to the table.

Vitamin B1Helps regulate metabolism and preserve energy
Vitamin CKeeps your immune system happy and healthy
Vitamin EAn powerful antioxidant
NiacinGreat for digestive health and an energy boost

All of the above can be found in common multivitamins, which are a simple and cost-effective way to promote bodily health.

Use Herbal Supplements

If more traditional options don’t prove effective, then turning to the wide world of herbal supplements can be a great alternative. Modafinilxl.com has a wide selection of different options that can do everything from boosting energy levels, to instilling a sense of calm, to improving your positive outlook on life. With a variety of unique blends, finding an option that is perfectly tailored to your taste is just a matter of careful shopping.

When Do I Need to See a Doctor?

Doctor helps to treat depressionMany forms of depression can be treated with quality and consistent self-care practices like those listed above. A combination of exercise, healthy eating, vitamins, nootropics and medications can all add up to a life of psychological health that lasts for the long term. However, it is also important to realize when self-care practices aren’t working.

After you have exhausted the above options without success, then looking for a qualified medical professional should be the very next step. Also, if you are facing suicidal thoughts or have expressed a tendency toward self-harm, then contacting a doctor immediately is advised. Do not hesitate to seek the help you need, whether it comes in the form of a pill, some hearty exercise, or the experienced care of a physician.

Bipolar Disorder Treatment

Bipolar Disorder Treatment

In this article, readers will be introduced to safe ways to treat bipolar disorder. Learn how to cure BD with medications, psychotherapy, and other well-known methods. Get to know the list of drugs that can cause bipolar disorder, in addition to some of the top triggers of manic or depressive episodes.

What Is Bipolar Disorder?

According to the American Psychiatric Association, bipolar disorder is a lifelong brain disorder that causes extreme mood swings in adults and children alike. The National Institute of Mental Health also uses the terms «manic-depressive illness» or «manic depression» to describe bipolar disorder.

There are three main types of bipolar disorders:

  • bipolar disorder i – patients have at least one major manic episode before or after a major depressive or hypomanic episode;
  • bipolar disorder ii – patients have a history of at least one hypomanic and major depressive event, but no past record of manic episodes;
  • cyclothymic disorder – patients have prolonged cycles (roughly two years) of alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes.

BD Symptoms

Bipolar disorder is marked by erratic fluctuations in mood and behavior. Patients, therefore, may face many challenges going about daily life when the disorder isn’t managed properly.

The best way to find out if you have bipolar disorder is to get evaluated by a qualified mental health professional. There are however a few telltale signs of bipolar disorder. These are subcategorized into manic episodes and depressive episodes.

Manic episodes can be further broken down into two groups, which are mania and hypomania. Mania is considered to be a more serious symptom of bipolar disorder, as patients may experience psychosis. In this event, intervention and hospitalization is typically required.

Mania and hypomania

Depressive episodes

  • unusually optimistic and energetic;
  • having larger-than-life self-confidence;
  • speaking excessively and over-the-top;
  • having disorganized and racing thoughts;
  • experiencing difficulties focusing;
  • taking uncalculated risks.
  • deep sadness, hopelessness, and despair;
  • lack of interest in most activities;
  • substantial weight loss;
  • insomnia or hypersomnia;
  • excessive fatigue;
  • negative self-talking;
  • suicidal thoughts or attempts;
  • delayed speech or actions.

Treatment for Bipolar Disorder

According to the Mayo Clinic, bipolar disorder is normally treated with a combination of medicines and therapies.

Bipolar disorder is considered to be a lifelong ailment that has no cure. Doctors, therefore, concentrate on managing the major symptoms of BD for the long-term. Since depressive episodes cause more serious and life-threatening behaviors when compared to manic periods, the first course of treatment is usually antidepressants or SSRIs.

Bipolar Disorder Treatment

Can antidepressants cause bipolar disorder? Even though antidepressants successfully treat one side of BD, they can also tip the scale and send mania over the edge.

To offset the risk, psychiatrists usually supplement them with a mood stabilizing medication such as valproate or carbamazepine, for example.


Three pill bottlesThe main medications used to treat and manage bipolar disorder, include:

  • antipsychotic drugs – these medications help prevent psychosis;
  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) – used to relieve depressive episodes;
  • anticonvulsants – administered to relieve pain, prevent seizures, or ease some of the signs of bipolar disorder.

What Are SSRIs? SSRIs are the latest classes of antidepressants that are believed to treat the symptoms of bipolar disorder more effectively.

How SSRIs Work? Our brains send signals and messages through a wide network of chemical neurotransmitters. To treat bipolar disorder, scientists focus on specific neurotransmitters that control our mood. It’s known as serotonin. Higher levels of serotonin contribute to reduced anxiety and depression. SSRIs essentially prevent serotonin from being absorbed when it’s transported from one neuron to another.

The main types of SSRIs or antidepressants prescribed for bipolar disorder include:

Name of drugGeneric name


Zoloft is a type of SSRI or antidepressant that is approved by the FDA to treat a range of mental disorders, including depression, OCD, PMDD, and more. Zoloft is generally only prescribed for patients with severe bipolar depression.

One of the main downsides of treating depression with Zoloft is the possibility that it will trigger manic episodes. As such, patients must be closely observed on a periodic basis while taking the medication.


Prosac pillsProzac or fluoxetine is considered to be one of the first SSRIs invented. Since 1987, the antidepressant has been proven to have a long track record of success in treating depressive episodes.

Prozac appears to be better tolerated when compared to other medicines, but the biggest drawback is that it takes a while for the effects to be seen.

In 2014, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) updated its clinical guidelines. The UK-based firm stressed that Prozac is the only antidepressant to be prescribed for bipolar disorder. To lower the risks of side effects like mania, Prozac should be combined with an antipsychotic medicine. It’s important to note, however, that other international medical boards use other parameters for treating bipolar disorder.

Is Xanax Used for Bipolar Disorder?

Xanax or alprazolam is a mild tranquilizer that falls under a class of drugs known as benzodiazepines.

Is Xanax used for bipolar disorder? Unlike popular antidepressants, these types of medicines treat the other side of BD, which is mania.

Xanax and other benzodiazepines are believed to increase gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a type of chemical neurotransmitter responsible for aiding in rest and relaxation. Xanax can, therefore, help to calm anxiety and panic attacks in inpatient and outpatient settings.

Lithium Carbonate

Lithium carbonate is one of the most popular treatments for bipolar disorder. It is one of three drugs on the marketplace that has been clinically proven to treat both major symptoms of BD, including mania and depression. The other two are Lamictal and Zyprexa, according to Bipolar Lives.

The Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) suggests using lithium as the first course of treatment for bipolar disorder.

Lexapro for BD

Lexapro pillsLexapro is authorized by the FDA to treat major depressive disorders. The drug is prescribed in either 5 mg, 10 mg, or 20 mg doses. Lexapro mirrors some of the benefits presented by other types of SSRIs, which include lowering incidences of acute behavioral depression in bipolar patients. It is also recommended for long-term management of the mental disorder.

The drug is believed to alter how messages are processed by the central nervous system and targeted nerve cells. Lexapro also repairs chemical imbalances in the brain and is moreover used to treat other mental disorders, such as anxiety. Due to the risk of suicidal thoughts, doctors typically wean patients off the drug when it’s deemed appropriate to do so instead of abruptly withdrawing the prescription.


The National Alliance of Mental Illness endorses Tegretol or Carbamazepine for treating bipolar disorder.

This drug treatment bipolar disorder aids in regulating both severe mania as well as merged episodes of bipolar disorder. Tegretol is classified as both a mood stabilizer and an anticonvulsant all in one. In addition to original Tegretol, the FDA approved extended release hybrids, which feature longer lasting effects.


Wellbutrin, or bupropion, is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant used to treat acute depression. The drug isn’t linked to other classes of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Instead, it is labeled under the aminoketone classes of drugs due to its chemical makeup.

Wellbutrin was deemed to be effective for treating major depressive disorders following a series of controlled inpatient and outpatient clinical studies. Researchers concluded that it was effective for treating the hallmarks of depressive episodes, including suicidal thoughts, the inability to focus, and feelings of sadness.


Lyrica (Pregabalin) tabletsLyrica is a new emerging anticonvulsant used to regulate mood and offset manic episodes that may be triggered by antidepressants. It is therefore used in conjunction with a SSRI, in most cases, to manage both major symptoms of bipolar disorder. Lyrica works much like a sedative by curtailing hyperactivity in the brain. Lyrica may also be prescribed as a singular treatment or combined with lithium carbonate.

In the United States, Lyrica isn’t conventionally used for the managing bipolar disorder. The FDA’s preliminary indication for Lyrica is for the treatment of partial seizures and pain. Nevertheless, Lyrica is reportedly a more popular off-label treatment in Europe, where it is used in conjunction with other BD drugs. It is typically prescribed for BD patients who have had a negative reaction to traditional BD treatment plans.


ECT, which is short for electroconvulsive or electroshock therapy, is usually used as a last resort for treating bipolar disorder when conventional medicines don’t work for acute mania or depression. In particular, ECT is used when patients have unrelenting suicidal thoughts and are considered to be a danger to themselves.

The procedure is done under general anesthesia as residential patients have an electric shock administered over the scalp. Even though ECT is the quickest way to alleviate severe depression or mania, it provides only short-term relief.


The American Psychological Association recommends psychotherapy as a critical component of any bipolar disorder treatment plan. In this therapy, patients collaborate with a group of specialists to help alter thought patterns – for the better.

Psychotherapy, in theory, helps patients to cope with major life changes and eliminate negative self-talk which is often associated with major depressive episodes.

Other Treatment Options

Some of the alternative treatments for bipolar disorder without medication or psychotherapy include:

  • calming therapies – to reduce racing thoughts, patients try yoga, meditation, or massage therapies;
  • interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (ipsrt) – to lower the incidences of unpredictable behaviors, patients follow a rhythm or set a schedule to gain more control;
  • light therapy – in this treatment, a light box is utilized to replicate natural lighting during months where sad or seasonal affective disorder is most prevalent.


VitaminsMedical doctor, Jim Haggerty of Psych Central regularly educates interested readers about mental health issues. In a recent article, he mentioned that even though there’s no clinical evidence demonstrating vitamins’ efficacy in treating bipolar disorder, these supplements help with alleviating the symptoms of BD.

Some of the best ones to try include vitamin A, B-1, B-6, B-12, D and E. Medical research shows that these vitamins help to regulate mood, including anxiety and depression. The added benefit is that vitamins, in general, promote good health.


Homeopathy is defined as an unconventional healing intervention, which uses diluted natural supplements to treat certain diseases. It embraces a holistic approach to healing and sources remedies that are already present in nature – from plant and animal life. Though seemingly eccentric, homeopathy has been recognized by the FDA as an effective method for treating various diseases.

Homeopathic therapists first analyze the patient’s mental, physical, and emotional health before recommending therapies. Homeopathic treatments are essentially tailored to the patient’s unique symptoms. For example, Aurum Metallicum and Natrum Sulphuricum are typically prescribed for suicidal thoughts while Ignatia Amara is popular for depression. Belladonna is used for aggressive behavior and Veratrum Album alleviates mania – just to name a few.

The natural medicines prescribed are intended to stimulate healing from within with zero side effects.

Home Remedies

Home remedies to treat bipolar disorderThere are also a few remedies patients can try at home to help maintain a relatively normal life with BD. Some of these home remedies include getting copious amounts of exercise, drinking plenty of water, and eating a balanced diet.

To live a better life with bipolar depression, try:

  • going on a walk with your dog – great for releasing pent up energy;
  • do yoga – a proven way to relieve anxiety and stress. Find lessons online to complete yoga in the comfort of home, or enroll in a nearby class;
  • aerobics – get your blood pumping with pilates or zumba, for example, in order to discharge endorphins, which puts you in a better mood. This energy buster also aids in giving you a better night’s sleep;
  • getting creative – get in touch with your creative side by coloring, drawing, listening to music, or planting a garden.

These activities help give you a brand new outlook on life and are especially useful during manic episodes when energy levels are through the roof.

Beat BD with Natural Supplements

Is it possible to beat BD naturally? Naturopaths believe so and encourage bipolar patients to try natural alternatives, including:

  • ashwagandha – contains sensorial, proven by the university of pittsburgh to enhance cognitive function;
  • brahmi – a herb that doubles up as both a stimulant and sedative;
  • fish oil – contains dha, epa, and omega-3 fatty acids which even out hormonal imbalances;
  • magnesium – is naturally found in dark leafy greens, beans, and nuts and is useful for promoting better sleep;
  • omega-3 – these fatty acids are found naturally in certain fish species and aid in steadying the mood;
  • passion flower – during manic episodes, passion flower helps provide a sense of calm and peace;
  • rhodiola rosea – is known for its stress relieving properties;
  • st. john’s wort – popular in europe, this herb is widely believed to pacify mood swings;
  • valerian root – typically used to relieve feelings of anxiety and insomnia as well as mood disorders.

To ensure BD patients aren’t doing more harm than good, a naturopath or homeopathic therapist should be consulted to get advice what herbs need to be incorporated or removed from the diet.

Ayurvedic Management

Ayurvedic management or medicine is an ancient healing method hailing from India. The practice was established more than 3.000 years ago, and similar to homeopathy, Ayurveda takes a holistic approach to treating varied ailments. While there are no specific directives in the original Ayurveda texts for treating BD, advocates propose using the healing instructions for insanity. The text for insanity states that patients must sustain immunity, strength, and vitality to be healed from within.

Can Weed Help to Cure Bipolar Disorder?

WeedScholars from a few well-known institutions, including Harvard Medical School, Tufts University, and McLean Hospital recently published a study called «Joint Effects: A Pilot Investigation of the Impact of Bipolar Disorder and Marijuana Use on Cognitive Function and Mood».

The findings revealed that bipolar patients experience temporary relief of BD symptoms when they habitually smoke marijuana. A special focus was placed on its positive effects on mood regulation. However, the researchers concluded that more trials were needed and warned that marijuana use can impair cognition. Therefore, potential users must weigh the benefits against the risks.

What Medications Cause BD?

By now we know that there are two sides to bipolar depression. It is also a well-documented phenomenon that antidepressants can cause one version of BD – which is mania. To reduce this risk factor, a mood stabilizer is prescribed with the antidepressant.

Depression medicines aren’t the only drugs that can cause symptoms of BD. Other prescription triggers include thyroid medicines, weight loss medicines, appetite inhibitors, or corticosteroids, for example.

Can Adderall Induce Bipolar Disorder?

Adderall is a stimulant drug used primarily to improve focus and prevent the urge to act on a whim – or low impulse control – all markers of ADHD and ADD.

Can Adderall cause bipolar disorder? According to clinical trials, the answer is yes. Like most stimulants used to manage ADD, these drugs are notorious for inducing manic forms of bipolar disorder.

Medical professionals do not recommend Adderall as the first course of treatment for bipolar disorder. In patients with acute impulse control issues, though, Adderall may be prescribed as a last resort and should always be paired with a mood stabilizer in BD patients.

How to Find the Right Bipolar Disorder Treatment

PhysiatristWhen it comes to finding the right bipolar disorder treatment, there isn’t a magic bullet. Each patient presents symptoms in different ways and every treatment has its own set of pros and cons.

One of the best ways to map out an effective treatment plan for BD is to consult a credible psychiatrist. After a diagnosis, patients can facilitate healing by combining pharmacological prescriptions with some of the safe natural remedies discussed in this article. Be sure to follow all guidelines put forth by your medical provider.

Narcolepsy Treatments

Narcolepsy Treatments

Narcolepsy is a disease that most of us have heard of but very few fully understand. It is one of the worst sleep-related diseases out there and it is relatively rare. Fortunately, there is a number of narcolepsy treatments available on the market.

What Is Narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is a disease that affects the central nervous system and causes the sufferer to fall asleep easily when the relaxed.

One may have several periods throughout the day where sleepiness is irresistible and they may end up asleep for as much as several minutes.

For some severe cases, naps may occur during day to day activities including mid conversation or in the middle of driving. For this reason, narcoleptics tend to avoid driving or operating heavy machinery.

Narcolepsy treatments


Doctors will diagnose narcolepsy with a combination of symptoms and tests. These are the signs that you should look out for:

  • sudden loss of muscle control;
  • vivid hallucinations;
  • frequest sleep paralysis upon awakening;
  • intense wakefulness in the middle of the night;
  • rem sleep is triggered quickly after falling asleep.

Drugs for Narcolepsy Treatment

Doctors may decide to attack the disease from different angles with a variety of medications within their prescribed narcolepsy medicines. Since narcolepsy tends to be triggered in moments of relaxation, drugs that stimulate the central nervous system may be quite useful.


Since some may not find their cure with standard drugs, they may turn to a holistic treatment. Herbs can be a very powerful medication that is much cheaper than prescription drugs. Some may even find their symptoms relieved by medical marijuana.


Adderall a very powerful amphetamine that increases concentration greatly. This sort of stimulant is very helpful to prevent users from dosing off during important tasks. This drug shows the most amount of positive response from patients but it can have some harsh side effects. Since the drug is highly addictive, you should follow the dosage guidelines strictly.


Provigil is designed to reduce overall sleepiness by altering the chemicals in the brain. Some patients have mixed results with this medication as dosages must be planned carefully. Some may find it to be underwhelming in comparison to Adderall, although it is a better alternative for those who cannot tolerate amphetamines.


Ritalin is effective for increasing the alertness and concentration of narcoleptics so that they do not fall asleep so easily.


Since it is a stimulant, some users may have trouble falling asleep at night due to the intensity of the drug. Ritalin is very effective for a lot of people in combination with other medications. But before using the tablets, consult your doctor to avoid side effects!


Vyvanse is known to be just as powerful as Adderall with fewer side effects for the health of people who suffer from narcolepsy.

A large majority of narcoleptic patients will have positive changes after using this drug. It is also desired because it does not disturb the natural sleep cycle at night time.


Nuvigil aids in keeping the patient awake by stimulating certain parts of the brain. This is one of the few medications that is marketed directly towards narcolepsy patients. The side effects are generally tolerable and certain combinations of medication mat are needed in most patients.


Dexedrine is a stimulant of the nervous system and is typically used for ADHD. Narcolepsy patients will often have a positive effect from this drug without minimal side effects. It can be one of the more expensive options on the market, though.


Xyrem depresses the central nervous system and ends up reducing sleepiness during the daytime. The side effects and drug interactions can be severe, so it is typically not used in many combinations of drugs. It may also alleviate respiratory problems during night time sleep.


This is an antidepressant that may better symptoms of narcoleptics. Mainly can help in cutting nap off during daytime tasks.

Happy manIt also increases the feel-good chemicals in the brain so that you may be more alert in the morning. The application of Wellbutrin may not work for everybody and may need to be taken with a combination of other medications.


Zoloft is one of the most popular antidepressants and it is also helpful for narcoleptics. Zoloft can increase the chemicals in the brain to increase happiness and alertness during the day, although it is not the most common treatment. The main lack is that it can cause insomnia, which can make certain symptoms worse in the morning. There are mixed reviews with the use of this drug, but it is worth trying after a visit to the doctor in charge.


Melatonin is a supplement that can easily and legally be obtained online. This supplement is actually a natural hormone that helps to restore the natural sleep cycle that may be lost for individuals with the disease. It is a very safe supplement to take and it has virtually no harmful side effects. You may also increase your body’s natural melatonin production by going to bed very early and rising before dawn.

Amphetamines for Cure Narcolepsy

Amphetamines are a very powerful class of drug that can treat a wide variety of conditions. Overall, narcoleptics will find the most amount of usefulness with amphetamines than any other class of drugs. Essentially, this makes amphetamines one of the ways to cure narcolepsy as most patients will no longer fall asleep during the day. Unfortunately, amphetamines can be highly addictive and must be given the correct dosage to avoid long-term health problems.

How to Cure Narcolepsy Naturally?

Those that are looking for a natural alternative will have a long road ahead of them, but it is still possible. Finding remedies to reduce stress, increase nighttime sleep, and increasing energy during the day should be your goal. Herbs like Gotu Kola, country mallow or Ginkgo biloba are very helpful. Regular exercise will also be able to correct your sleep cycle in order to prevent further episodes during the day.

Herbs for the treatment of narcolepsy

Homeopathic Treatment

Homeopathic doctors and naturalists go against the grain of the medical industry and administer treatments directly from nature. Typically, they will use herbs like the ones mentioned above along with multiple lifestyle changes. The changing of one’s diet may also be a major component in a prescribed holistic treatment. You should go in for a consultation with a naturalist to find out how to get rid of narcolepsy naturally.

Medical Marijuana

It may be a bit controversial, but medical marijuana can be a viable alternative treatment. The THC in marijuana is able to increase the quality of sleep and thus reducing the tendency to fall asleep during the day. It can also increase the balance of chemicals in the brain that helps a patient feel more alert during the day.

Alternative Treatment

Some of the alternative treatments mentioned above like herbal usage or supplements may be viable methods. Acupuncture is another experimental alternative treatment that may have some benefit to the sufferer of narcolepsy. Some may believe that this disease is subconscious and some people online claim to have treated their condition using hypnotherapy.

Availability Of Treatments

TreatmentNeeds PrescriptionLegal in USA
Medical MarijuanaYes (in some states)No (banned federally)

The treatments above are more or less the entirety of treatments available for the disease. Some people may feel little reaction to any of the treatments and some people may feel completely cured. You should work with your doctor when experimenting with alternative treatment methods so that you can safely fight this disease without the risk of adverse side effects. But do not forget that you can always buy the most effective medicine at a cheap price in an online pharmacy ModafinilXL. And having made an order using bitcoin you will automatically get an additional 35% discount!

Narcolepsy Definition and Causes

Narcolepsy Definition and Causes

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that causes drowsiness, sleep attacks, and physical collapse. Be prepared, and learn the forms, causes, side effects and dangers associated with this disease. Protect yourself and your family.

Narcolepsy has a dual origin originating from the Greek word «narke», which means numbness, and the English word epilepsy. Some may only have slight drowsiness and can function in everyday life. Those with narcolepsy are said to be more susceptible to relaxing situations, something as simple as sitting on a couch could make them fall asleep.
Some patients find relief from the use of modern medicines. Thanks to this, they feel more confident and live a full life.

Narcolepsy Definition

Narcolepsy is a sleeping disorder characterized by extreme sleepiness and drowsiness in the day. The dictionary definition for narcolepsy description it as an incurable sleeping disorder whose severity varies from person to person. Hence the word narcolepsy. Some people tend to fall asleep even when they are just slightly relaxed. Relaxation causes some narcoleptics to fall asleep suddenly. In the medical field, they call this a sleep attack. Narcolepsy can be very dangerous because approximately seventy percent of patients with narcolepsy also have cataplexy. Learn more about narcolepsy so you can recognize the signs and symptoms. Narcolepsy symptom list:

  • cataplexy;
  • excessive daytime sleepiness;
  • sleep paralysis;
  • hypnagogic hallucinations;
  • sleep and automatic behavior disruption;
  • brain damage.

Narcolepsy definition and causes

Are There Different Forms of Narcolepsy?

As with many diseases, there are different types of narcolepsy. In this case, however, it can be narrowed down to two main forms: one with cataplexy, and one without cataplexy. Narcoleptics without cataplexy are rare, and the cause is still unknown. Since they don’t experience muscle weakness, it is less dangerous and the milder of the two.

What is Cataplexy?

Cataplexy is when a strong emotion, like laughter, causes a person to lose muscle control and collapse. Meaning all of the person’s muscles, the face, arms, legs, and chest, can be affected causing delayed motion, slurred or staggered speech, and even the complete inability to move one’s body.

Strong emotion

An attack of cataplexy can look similar to passing out because they are both brought on by bouts of extreme emotion. The severity of a cataplexy attack can also vary significantly.

Sometimes it will show itself as a brief tingling feeling, numbness or weakness in the muscles. Other times it can cause a person’s entire body to collapse. It could take seconds to minutes for the person to regain control of their body.

Secondary Narcolepsy

The details of secondary narcolepsy are not widely known. This very rare type of narcolepsy can cause hallucinations, physical weakness or muscle collapse, seizure, stroke, or even result in death.

Secondary narcolepsy is the product of an extreme infection that caused irreparable damage to the hypothalamus section of the brain. In this case, the hypothalamus cannot send the correct nerve signals because the brain is too damaged to function. This misfire sends signals of sleepiness and could cause sudden sleep attacks, seizure, and even cessation of full motor control. It is always dangerous for a person with narcolepsy because they can lose muscle control and collapse at any time.

What Causes Narcolepsy?

The secret of the cause of narcolepsy was only partially revealed at the end of the 20th century. The whole fault is the structure of the brain, responsible for changing the fast and slow phase of sleep. In our brain, thousands of chemical reactions pass every second. Neurotransmitters are substances that transmit the nerve impulse from one cell to another.

The neuromediator responsible for wakefulness was called orexin. It is the lack of orexin that provokes narcolepsy.

Narcolepsy is usually hereditary. Often there will be documentation of this disorder in adults of the family. In rare instances, narcolepsy has resulted from severe trauma to the brain caused by an extreme bacterial infection which is more common in elderly and in adults.


Other reasons for the reduction of orexin include:

  • diabetes;
  • brain trauma;
  • infectious diseases of the nervous system;
  • stress disorders, exhaustion;
  • genetic predisposition.

What part of the brain does narcolepsy affect? In a human brain, the narcolepsy cause is in the hypothalamus, a large section in the forebrain. This section of the brain coordinates the autonomic nervous system. In adults, it controls many essential body functions like hunger, thirst and moderating body temperature. It is a fundamental component for our motor skills to work correctly.

What Type of Doctor Treats Narcolepsy?

Many people wonder what kind of doctor treats this disease. A neurologist is usually the doctor to help treat this disease.

Since the disorder itself is neurological, a specialist in the medical field can contribute their expertise to give you a full physical exam and rule out the possibility of secondary narcolepsy. From there they can assess the severity of the particular case, and prescribe medications to help. A lot can change with the support of a responsible neurologist. With the right treatment, a narcoleptic can relieve stress and lead a considerably normal and happy life. Narcolepsy statistical chart:

Estimated Americans with narcolepsy215,923
Rate of undiagnosed cases of narcolepsy0.06 %
Average age for start of narcolepsy15-20
Percentage of family members also with narcolepsy8-12 %
Percentage of narcoleptics with cataplexy70%
Narcoleptics with all four symptoms (cataplexy, EDS, sleep paralysis, hallucinations)10-35%
Cases reported in Canada23,902
Cases reported in the United Kingdom44,316
Cases reported in China955,035

In the online pharmacy ModafinilXL you can buy such pills as Modalert, which were designed specifically as a medicine to help people with sleep problems improve cognitive function and help maintain a healthy sleep cycle.

Definition and Types of Depression: Part 2

Definition and Types of Depression: Part 2

Did you know that 1 in 10 Americans are suffering from some form of depression? Full description of depression types: chronic (neurotic or dysthymia), functional, secondary, situational, comorbid, episodic depression and other types. When you need to see a doctor?

You may find it shocking to hear that 121 million people worldwide are suffering with some kind of depression. With so many people in crisis, it is vital that we understand the symptoms, causes and treatment methods for this serious mental illness in order to protect ourselves and others from the condition.

In this article, we’ll explore some of the lesser-known aspects of the mental illness, including the differences between chronic and episodic depression, and we’ll examine how some can suffer from depression and remain functional, while others struggle to even maintain normal speech.

Definition of Depression

For a depression definition, you can refer back to Definition and Types of Depression: Part 1. You will also be able to learn more about major depressive disorder and its sub-types, bipolar disorder, seasonal affective disorder, and facts and statistics about clinical depression.

Depression Types

There are many different varieties of depression that people can suffer from, some of which are outlined in Part 1 of this guide. In this article, we’ll outline the symptoms and causes of the following types of mental illnesses: chronic,  depression and dysthymia, episodic depression, functional and mild depression, secondary type, comorbid type, catatonic form, antenatal depression, existential type, vascular form.

Definition and Types of Depression: Part 2

Chronic, Neurotic Type or Dysthymia

Persistent Depressive DisorderDysthymia, also often referred to as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), chronic or neurotic depression, is diagnosed when an individual suffers from depression over the course of many years.

Symptoms of chronic depression tend to be very similar to that of major type, but often they are a little less severe. However, major depression can occur in chronically depressed people, in which case their symptoms become more dramatic. Sometimes an episode of major depression can occur before someone develops dysthymia.

Functional Version of Disease

When an individual suffers from mild but persistent depressed symptoms, it is known as “functional depression.” In these cases, sufferers find it possible to hold down a job and social life, but they still feel unhappy, low in energy and motivation, and experience feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness on a regular basis.

Simply because someone is functional does not mean that their illness is not severe enough for treatment. Often, functional depressed people are overlooked because sufferers simply put up with the mild symptoms under the belief that it is normal for them to feel that way.

Medication and talking therapies can be successful treatments for functional depression, which is why individuals suffering from the condition should seek medical support.

What Is Secondary Depression?

DepressionSecondary depression, sometimes called double depression, is named as such when a depressed person already has an existing disease which has led to their melancholy state.

The pre-existing condition may be a mental or physical illness, but it is often a chronic or long-term disease or disorder which is negatively impacting their daily life. In many ways, the secondary type is similar to reactive depression which we outlined in Part 1, since it occurs as a response or reaction to something else.

Although secondary depression can be treated in a similar way to major type (with medication and therapy), it is often helpful to treat the pre-existing condition first or at least find ways of better managing symptoms of the pre-existing condition. By going about treatment from this angle, it is possible to rectify the trigger of the depressive episode in order to reduce the risk of future relapses.

Comorbid Type

Comorbid depression is another term used to describe secondary type depressive episodes. Comorbidity in the medical community refers to the presence of multiple conditions at one time.

Situational Form

Situational DepressionSituational depression is an episode of very low mood and mild depressed symptoms in response to stressful or traumatic life events. Many psychology experts deem it to be an adjustment disorder and not true depression, but if left untreated it can develop into the reactive type of major depressive disorder, which we outlined in Part 1.

There are many reasons why an individual may suffer from situational depression. Individuals in midlife may experience it after being made redundant or after the loss of a loved one. In young people a depressed episode could be triggered by something like changing schools or moving to a new city. In the elderly, adjusting to the loss of a spouse or to a move into a retirement home could trigger a serious downturn in mental health.

These are just a few examples of the ways in which situational depression could come about. It is important that sufferers acknowledge the depressive symptoms they experience when undergoing a major life change or planning to start a new life, in order to seek treatment where necessary and reduce the risk of it developing into severe major depressive disorder.

Antenatal or Maternal Character of Disease

Antenatal (also known as prenatal) type refers to depressed symptoms which occur in women during pregnancy.

There are a wide range of causes for antenatal depression. First of all, the physical effects of pregnancy, such as morning sickness, lethargy and breast and back pain can take their toll on the mental wellbeing.

Secondly, changing hormone levels can trigger changes in the brain and cause biological depression. Thirdly, the emotional implications – worrying about the health of the baby, the lifestyle changes the baby will bring, the financial implications of raising a child – can put pressure on mental health and lead to increased stress, worry and anxiety.

Maternal depression, also known as postnatal type, occurs after the birth of the baby. Much like prenatal form, it can be caused by a range of biological, hormonal and emotional triggers.

Treating antenatal and postnatal depressive episodes may be difficult, as some medications may not be suitable for pregnant or breastfeeding women. However, talking therapies can be extremely effective in helping new moms and moms-to-be in overcoming the illnesses.

What Is Catatonic Form?

Catatonic DepressionCatatonic depression causes sufferers to experience “catatonia”, in which they become speechless and motionless.

Catatonia can occur as a result of various different mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder and PTSD. It is thought that it occurs due to the mental illness causing disruption to neurotransmitters.

Although most commonly catatonia results in a lack of speech and motion, sometimes it can cause sufferers to have sudden unusual movements instead. Catatonically depressed people may also find it difficult or impossible to eat or drink, feel agitated by their inability to communicate, or, when they are able to speak or move, find themselves imitating the speech and movement of those around them.

Definition of Anxious or Anxiety Depression

Depression and anxiety disorders are different conditions, but they are often understood to be the same thing because they share similar symptoms and many people can experience anxiety disorder and depressive episodes at the same time. People with both conditions are sometimes diagnosed with Mixed Anxiety-Depression Disorder (MADD).

Aside from the common symptoms of major depressive disorder (such as reduced energy, motivation and attention span, feeling bored or disinterested in pleasurable activities, deep sadness, lack of self-worth, thoughts of harming oneself), anxious depression tends to cause the following symptoms:

  • racing thoughts, irritability and sudden anger;
  • physical manifestations such as chronic pain, breathlessness, rapid heartbeat, hot flashes;
  • panic attacks;
  • insomnia;
  • problems with memory and concentration;
  • irrational and constant fear or worry.

Since anxiety disorders and depressive disorders share much of the same symptoms, depression can often be masked by anxiety and vice versa.

Suicidal Depression

Suicidal DepressionSuicidal depression usually occurs in people who have suffered with very severe symptoms of the illness, sometimes over a long period of time. Other factors, such as other mental or physical illnesses, can contribute to feelings of self-harm and suicide.

People who feel suicidal often have intense feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness, which leads to them feeling that suicide may be the only way to find relief from their state of mind. In some cases, a specific traumatic or stressful event may push someone towards suicidal thoughts or behavior in a similar way to reactive depression, which was discussed in part 1.

Individuals who feel suicidal should seek help immediately by calling emergency services or visiting a hospital. Medication and therapy are often the best long-term treatments, but the first step is to find a safe environment for the individual to attempt to prevent them causing harm to themselves.

Vascular Form

Although there is still much research to be done to fully understand the vascular form of the disease, also known as subcortical ischemic depression, it is a condition thought to most commonly affect individuals over the age of 65.

The condition is believed to be caused by lesions on the brain, which can be detected via an MRI scan. Although many of its symptoms are similar to major depressive disorder, vascular depression is distinctive because it tends to correlate with these lesions and is most common in elderly individuals whose age makes them more susceptible to vascular disease.

What Is Episodic Depression?

PhysiciansEpisodic depression refers to depressive disorder which occurs in episodes, as opposed to chronic depression or dysthymia, both of which are ongoing and can last for years.

Individuals may suffer from one or several depressive episodes in their lifetime, but if they have had multiple episodes, physicians may be interested to know more about their state of mind in between each episode to determine if they actually have a more chronic mental illness.

Existential Type

Sometimes referred to as an ‘existential crisis’, this type of depression is caused when individuals question existential topics, such as life, death or the meaning of their existence.

Since it is not possible to achieve a definitive answer to these types of philosophical questions, individuals may find themselves struggling to find their purpose or place in the world, and develop feelings of worthlessness or hopelessness as a result.

In some instances, existential depressed episodes may be triggered by a major or traumatic life event. For example, someone grieving the sudden death of a loved one may find themselves questioning life and death and this in combination with their grieving emotional state may trigger depressed symptoms.

Mild Depression

Mild DepressionMild depression is often referred to as “functional”, as discussed earlier. People who suffer from mild symptoms of the illness may not struggle to continue with their daily activities like those with moderate to severe symptoms. However, their behavior, mood and general state of mind will be less positive than if they were not depressed at all, and is likely to appear weird and out of character to others.

Regarding treatment, medication is often not deemed suitable for individuals with mild depression. Instead, therapies such as CBT, self-help programs, and regular physical exercise may be more effective in managing mild symptoms.

Other Types of Depression

The forms of disease outlined in parts 1 and 2 are some of the most common types of depression, but there are many more varieties of the mental illness, such as the following:

Melancholic DepressionA sub-type of major depressive disorder in which individuals struggle to find pleasure in positive things. Agitation, insomnia and loss of appetite are common.
CyclothymiaMoods cycle between mildly depressed and elevated or hypomanic. Similar to bipolar disorder but significantly less severe in terms of depressive and manic episodes.
Adolescent DepressionDepressive symptoms in teenagers, often caused by various triggers, such as changing hormone levels during puberty, having low self-esteem, being victim of bullying, childhood abandonment, or exposure to violent or sexual abuse.
Psychotic DepressionA major depressive episode in which the sufferer experiences psychotic symptoms such as hearing or seeing things that aren’t real or experiencing delusional, paranoid thoughts.
Preparatory GriefThis is the type of grief that individuals go through when they know they are dying. It is often deemed a type of depression as it shares many symptoms with the mental illness.

How Can I Know That I Have Depression?

PsychologistIf you’ve been suffering with many of the symptoms listed in this article or in Part 1 on modafinilxl.com for a significant amount of time – usually two weeks or more – it is possible that you’re suffering from a depressive disorder. A healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, will be able to diagnose you and help you to understand which type of the illness you are suffering from.

When to Consult a Doctor?

You should consult a doctor if you’ve been experiencing symptoms for more than two weeks, no matter how mild your symptoms are. Individuals with mild or functional depression may not deem it necessary to visit a doctor, but unless they seek treatment and advice on how to live with their symptoms, their mental health could decline into a severe episode of major depressive disorder.

Individuals experiencing suicidal symptoms should seek urgent care if they are having strong thoughts of harming themselves or committing suicide. Those who are dealing with chronic depression may not have much hope that medical intervention will help them, but with perseverance it may be possible to find medication or methods of coping that significantly reduce the severity of the symptoms.

If you are living with someone with a depressive disorder, you should encourage them to seek medical support if you feel their quality of life, relationships and daily routine is suffering as a result of the illness. If in doubt about someone’s mental state it may be helpful to consult a physician for advice, but ultimately they must seek help from a doctor on their own terms.